Friel S.,Australian National University |
Akerman M.,University College London |
Hancock T.,Federal University of ABC |
Kumaresan J.,University of Victoria |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Urban Health | Year: 2011
Urban living is the new reality for the majority of the world's population. Urban change is taking place in a context of other global challenges - economic globalization, climate change, financial crises, energy and food insecurity, old and emerging armed conflicts, as well as the changing patterns of communicable and noncommunicable diseases. These health and social problems, in countries with different levels of infrastructure and health system preparedness, pose significant development challenges in the 21st century. In all countries, rich and poor, the move to urban living has been both good and bad for population health, and has contributed to the unequal distribution of health both within countries (the urban-rural divide) and within cities (the rich-poor divide). In this series of papers, we demonstrate that urban planning and design and urban social conditions can be good or bad for human health and health equity depending on how they are set up. We argue that climate change mitigation and adaptation need to go hand-in-hand with efforts to achieve health equity through action in the social determinants. And we highlight how different forms of governance can shape agendas, policies, and programs in ways that are inclusive and health-promoting or perpetuate social exclusion, inequitable distribution of resources, and the inequities in health associated with that. While today we can describe many of the features of a healthy and sustainable city, and the governance and planning processes needed to achieve these ends, there is still much to learn, especially with respect to tailoring these concepts and applying them in the cities of lower- and middle-income countries. By outlining an integrated research agenda, we aim to assist researchers, policy makers, service providers, and funding bodies/donors to better support, coordinate, and undertake research that is organized around a conceptual framework that positions health, equity, and sustainability as central policy goals for urban management. © 2011 The New York Academy of Medicine.
Silver J.,Durham University |
McEwan C.,Durham University |
Petrella L.,UN HABITAT |
Baguian H.,Muncipality of Bobo Dioulasso
Local Environment | Year: 2013
Climate change processes pose significant challenges to development in cities across West Africa. These processes shape and mediate urban vulnerability across urban areas and hinder wider development efforts across these cities. This paper reviews these emerging perspectives within the context of UN-Habitat's work in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso and Saint-Louis, Senegal. It argues that policy-makers and researchers need to engage with issues of climate change and development at an urban scale and across "ordinary cities" through exploring the range of vulnerabilities inherent in each city. Specifically, the paper illustrates the diversities and similarities of climate change processes that exist across these two medium sized, or ordinary West African cities, the intersections with existing economic profiles and potential impacts and the emerging urban governance responses to these issues. It demonstrates the need to move beyond constructions of an archetypal "West African" city, and illustrates the emerging work by UN-Habitat and local partners in developing localised knowledges about urban vulnerabilities and the multiple and divergent ways in which these issues are beginning to be addressed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Luque A.,Durham University |
Edwards G.A.S.,Durham University |
Lalande C.,UN Habitat
Local Environment | Year: 2013
This article argues that climate change, seen as a socially constructed anticipation of natural disasters and a future-risk that plays out in present politics, is enabling the emergence of new modes of governance in cities of the global south. The article focuses on the process by which the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, developed a Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Strategy. Within the context of climate change adaptation, Esmeraldas mobilised new discourses, stakeholders, and planning mechanisms to address pre-existing urban planning and development limitations. This discursively enabled the municipality's ongoing governance project by leveraging resources, creating consensus, and informing practice. Climate change adaptation thus became an important mechanism for engaging with local priorities, particularly those of the most vulnerable populations, and for bridging the gap between the formal world of policymaking and the reality of life in the city, which is more often structured by informality. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Birkmann J.,University of Bonn |
Garschagen M.,University of Bonn |
Kraas F.,University of Cologne |
Quang N.,UN HABITAT
Sustainability Science | Year: 2010
The task of adapting cities to the impacts of climate change is of great importance-urban areas are hotspots of high risk given their concentrations of population and infrastructure; their key roles for larger economic, political and social processes; and their inherent instabilities and vulnerabilities. Yet, the discourse on urban climate change adaptation has only recently gained momentum in the political and scientific arena. This paper reviews the recent climate change adaptation strategies of nine selected cities and analyzes them in terms of overall vision and goals, baseline information used, direct and indirect impacts, proposed structural and non-structural measures, and involvement of formal and informal actors. Against this background, adaptation strategies and challenges in two Vietnamese cities are analyzed in detail, namely Ho Chi Minh City and Can Tho. The paper thereby combines a review of formalized city-scale adaptation strategies with an empirical analysis of actual adaptation measures and constraints at household level. By means of this interlinked and comparative analysis approach, the paper explores the achievements, as well as the shortcomings, in current adaptation approaches, and generates core issues and key questions for future initiatives in the four sub-categories of: (1) knowledge, perspectives, uncertainties and key threats; (2) characteristics of concrete adaptation measures and processes; (3) interactions and conflicts between different strategies and measures; (4) limits of adaptation and tipping points. In conclusion, the paper calls for new forms of adaptive urban governance that go beyond the conventional notions of urban (adaptation) planning. The proposed concept underlines the need for a paradigm shift to move from the dominant focus on the adjustment of physical structures towards the improvement of planning tools and governance processes and structures themselves. It addresses in particular the necessity to link different temporal and spatial scales in adaptation strategies, to acknowledge and to mediate between different types of knowledge (expert and local knowledge), and to achieve improved integration of different types of measures, tools and norm systems (in particular between formal and informal approaches). © 2010 Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science, United Nations University, and Springer.
Castan Broto V.,University College London |
Oballa B.,UN Habitat |
Junior P.,UN Habitat
Local Environment | Year: 2013
As new forms of governance for climate change emerge in African cities, will they enable emancipatory and socially progressive transformations or will they exacerbate existing inequality, poverty and vulnerability patterns? This paper presents one of the case studies developed by UN-Habitat Cities and Climate Change Initiative in Maputo, Mozambique. The case analyses first, the production of urban vulnerabilities under climate change, and second, the existing governance arrangements for climate change in the city. Building on the lessons of the case study, the paper argues that to ensure that new forms of climate change governance lead to socially and environmentally just outcomes climate change interventions should, at least, meet two conditions: first, they should consider the close interactions between social and ecological elements and, specially, how patterns of urban inequality interact with environmental factors; second, they should recognise the opportunities in African cities through a broad notion of governance that looks beyond the government as the sole agent of urban change. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Ricci L.,University of Rome La Sapienza |
Sanou B.,UN Habitat |
Baguian H.,Muncipality of Bobo Dioulasso
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2015
The paper focuses on the role of multilevel governance in climate change adaptation and risk management, and draws out lessons from the implementation of the UN Habitat Cities and Climate Change Initiatives (CCCI) in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. It describes the process for the formulation of a participatory risk management framework for local actors drawing from empirical investigations undertaken in Bobo-Dioulasso. The paper argues that adaptation needs to be mainstreamed and implemented at local level and to include risk management. Moreover, regulatory capacity of public authorities and balance of power and resources play a major role in this process. After presenting the specific knowledge on climate and environmental challenges and CCCI implementation in Bobo-Dioulasso, the paper describes challenges and opportunities in the implementation of the participatory risk and management framework. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Zevenbergen J.,University of Twente |
Augustinus C.,UN HABITAT |
Antonio D.,UN HABITAT |
Bennett R.,University of Twente
Land Use Policy | Year: 2013
The global land community has accepted that individual land titling on its own cannot deliver security of tenure in a complete or timely fashion, and that a continuum of land rights approach needs to be used. This approach needs to be accompanied by new and innovative pro-poor forms of land recordation to cater for these new forms of tenure. The proposed design draws on conventional land administration systems and the experiences of professionals, civil society and researchers regarding the land tenure systems of the poor and how they work in customary, informal, and post crisis areas. It is based on eight general design requirements, including delivery of preventive justice and co-management arrangements. The design is made up of ten interlinked elements, with an emphasis on a continuum of land recording. The design is only a first step toward a coherent robust framework. Some first experiences are reported, however, further suggested work includes: dissemination and awareness raising; further piloting; incorporation of institutional and political economy analysis; tailoring methods of implementation; and investigating approaches for funding, training, and material resources. Ultimately the pro-poor land recordation system should bring tenure security to the poor at faster rates and lower costs, and should thus enable a foothold on the lower rungs of the property ladder. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Wilson D.C.,Imperial College London |
Rodic L.,Wageningen University |
Scheinberg A.,WASTE |
Velis C.A.,Imperial College London |
Alabaster G.,UN Habitat
Waste Management and Research | Year: 2012
This paper uses the 'lens' of integrated and sustainable waste management (ISWM) to analyse the new data set compiled on 20 cities in six continents for the UN-Habitat flagship publication Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. The comparative analysis looks first at waste generation rates and waste composition data. A process flow diagram is prepared for each city, as a powerful tool for representing the solid waste system as a whole in a comprehensive but concise way. Benchmark indicators are presented and compared for the three key physical components/drivers: public health and collection; environment and disposal; and resource recovery-and for three governance strategies required to deliver a well-functioning ISWM system: inclusivity; financial sustainability; and sound institutions and pro-active policies. Key insights include the variety and diversity of successful models-there is no 'one size fits all'; the necessity of good, reliable data; the importance of focusing on governance as well as technology; and the need to build on the existing strengths of the city. An example of the latter is the critical role of the informal sector in the cities in many developing countries: it not only delivers recycling rates that are comparable with modern Western systems, but also saves the city authorities millions of dollars in avoided waste collection and disposal costs. This provides the opportunity for win-win solutions, so long as the related wider challenges can be addressed. © The Author(s) 2012.
Oyeyinka B.O.,UN Habitat
International Journal of Technological Learning, Innovation and Development | Year: 2012
Latecomer countries possess varying levels of policy and institutional capacity to make the right kinds of choices that promote development, which explain to a large extent the difficulties they face in transforming knowledge through learning activities to technological capabilities and innovative performance. This paper tries to answer some of the myriad of questions that arise in resolving the development conundrum of the latecomers. For instance, why is access to knowledge not sufficient to promote the use of knowledge? Why is technology transfer not a necessary precondition for technology absorption? Why is public sector research not sufficient to promote product development through the private sector? The answer to most of these very basic, often-assumed-to-be-given, constraints lies in the nature of, and the capacity of formal and informal institutions that underlie innovation in latecomer countries. I suggest that one of the causes of this failure is the lack of an institutional base for innovation that builds on local and contextual factors. © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Tsige T.,UN Habitat
Water and Wastewater International | Year: 2011
UN-HABITAT and local NGO, Ethiopian Rainwater Harvesting Association (ERI-IA), and the government entity known as Zanzibar Water Authority (ZAWA), as part of the Water for African Cities program, formed partnerships for the planning and the implementation of a rainwater harvesting pilot project in Ethiopia and Zanzibar respectively. Rainwater harvesting schemes were demonstrated in 13 schools, four community centers and two prisons, reaching over 22,000 clients. It was found that the promotion of rainwater in schools and similar institutions can help to reduce costs either through the reduction of the values of water bills or the saving of electric power that is used to pump water from wells. Providing schools with rainwater harvesting schemes improves hygiene and sanitation conditions and the implementation through schools has proved to be effective in reaching the community at large.