Headline english: Nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to Austria's rivers and reduction possibilities [Stickstoff- und Phosphorbelastungen der Fließgewässer Österreichs und Möglichkeiten zu deren Reduktion]
Schilling C.,Umweltbundesamt Wien |
Zessner M.,Vienna University of Technology |
Kovacs A.,Vienna University of Technology |
Hochedlinger G.,Umweltbundesamt Wien |
And 5 more authors.
Osterreichische Wasser- und Abfallwirtschaft | Year: 2011
Summary: The empirical nutrient emission model MONERIS has been used for an updated assessment of the nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to Austria's rivers and streams. Selected existing model approaches were modified to meet the specific conditions in Austria so as to ensure optimal model results. This substantially improved the model performance in terms of deviation between calculated and measured nitrogen and phosphorus loads in rivers. Using the modified approaches total nitrogen and phosphorus emissions to surface waters in Austria for the reference period 2001-2006 we calculated. Nitrogen and phosphorus loads were calculated with consideration of in-stream retention processes in water bodies. Extending the model approaches, the calculated loads were converted into 90% percentiles of the NO3-N and PO4-P concentrations and compared to type-specific reference conditions for the good ecological status as laid down in the Austrian Qualitätszielverordnung Ökologie Oberflächengewässer (Directive on Ecological Surface water Quality Objectives). Comparison with the results of the risk analyses of the Austrian Nationaler Gewässerbewirtschaftungsplan (National River Basin Management Plan), NGP 2009 (BMLFUW 2009a) showed a good agreement for those water bodies, which are at risk not to meet the good ecological status due to elevated nutrient loads. Scenario calculations have shown that the reduction of diffuse emissions from agricultural sector should be a prime target for seeking to protect local water bodies. Increased requirements for point sources might only improve the situation in individual cases, if at all. Nutrient transport to the seas can be reduced by further restrictions for emissions from point sources (besides taking measures in agricultural sector) by about 10% for nitrogen and by about 15% for phosphorus loads. The modeling of nutrient emissions and loads in Austria were also used by serving as a basis for calculating nutrient emissions, in-stream loads and concentrations in surface waters for the scenarios of the Gesunde Ernährung und Nachhaltigkeit - GERN (Healthy Nutrition and Sustainability) project. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Woll K.,Landesamt fur Verbraucherschutz |
Lieske K.,Bundesamt fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit |
Narendja F.,Umweltbundesamt Wien |
Heissenberger A.,Umweltbundesamt Wien |
And 4 more authors.
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2013
It is common practice to perform the validation procedure of real-time PCR based methods using commercially available ready-to-use PCR reagents, so called master mixes. In general there is no detailed knowledge about the individual components of these mixes. If changing to a different product-no matter whether a novel mix from the same or a mix from a different manufacturer-this may consequently result in considerable efforts to validate the method again according to the ISO 17025 standard. To minimize the amount of work in such cases a simple procedure to test the equivalence of different master mixes in accordance to the ISO requirements is presented. The procedure allows analyzing the equivalence within a single real-time PCR run in a very simple manner. It is universally applicable and can be applied for any real-time PCR reagent or master mix. The practicability of the procedure is demonstrated presenting experimental data for two different master mixes from test runs applying the event-specific real-time PCR method for the detection of maize MON863 [EURL GMFF http://gmo-crl.jrc.ec.europa.eu/summaries/MON863-WEB-Protocol-Validation.pdf (2005)]. © 2013 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL).