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Jakobi G.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Kirchner M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Henkelmann B.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Korner W.,Bavarian Environment Agency | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Bulk deposition samples were collected at three elevated summits in different parts of the Alps from 2005 to 2010. Deposition samples were analyzed for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). HCHs, DDT, DDD, DDE, chlordanes, cis-heptachlor, HCB, dieldrin and endrin were found in all samples, only aldrin was found less frequently.Differences in the mean deposition rates between the three sites reflect the different amounts of precipitation at these sites. At the northern edge of the Alps with the highest annual total precipitations, mean annual deposition rates were at least twice those at the Swiss site for most of the investigated OCP. Average annual deposition of α-HCH amounted to 602, 461 and 216ngm-2year-1, the sum of DDT, DDD and DDE to 579, 210 and 144ngm-2year-1 and the sum of trans- and cis-chlordane to 35, 47, 16ngm-2 year-1at Zugspitze, Sonnblick, and Weissfluhjoch, respectively.A quite distinct seasonal pattern of OPC deposition was observed at all three locations. For most of the HCH isomers, higher deposition rates were observed in summer than in winter at all three sites, which may be caused by enhanced re-volatilization due to higher summer temperatures and the ongoing application of HCH-containing products in some regions as well. For the other investigated OCPs, higher summer deposition rates were found only at Weissfluhjoch. This site is more often affected by air masses crossing the river Po basin than the other two sites, an area exhibiting higher summer temperatures compared to other regions adjacent to the Alps. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Kirchner M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Jakobi G.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Korner W.,Bavarian Environment Agency | Levy W.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 9 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2016

Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which are emitted into air, occur ubiquitously in different environmental compartments worldwide. OCPs are measurable in conspicuous concentrations in the air not only near emission regions but also in background areas, as in the Alps. In the present study, we analyzed OCPs in air samples between 2005 and 2013 at three high Alpine stations (Weißfluhjoch, Switzerland: 2663 m a s l.; Sonnblick, Austria: 3106 m a s l.; and Schneefernerhaus, Germany: 2650 m a s l.). The air concentrations of OCPs at these stations were lower than those in source regions but higher than those in the Arctic region. Concentration differences between sites were found to be relatively small. To distinguish the influences from different European source regions, four filters of low- volume active air samplers were operated alternately according to a trajectory prediction method. Air masses from the northeast (i.e., Bavaria and Eastern Central Europe) and the south (i.e., Mediterranean countries) were characterized by higher concentrations of OCPs (e.g., pentachlorobenzene and hexachlorobenzene) compared with those arriving from the Atlantic Ocean. Additionally, we evaluated the temporal trend of the single compounds; only a few compounds such as endosulfan exhibited a clear decreasing trend. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.

In multiple-use landscapes such as the Wienerwald Biosphere Reserve interactions between the habitat requirements of wildlife and human land use demands often lead to conflicts that impede the sustainable management of local wildlife and its habitats. Using the example of mountain biking the study discusses the potential conflicts between this recreation activity and selected wildlife species. This leisure activity has been chosen as it is becoming increasingly popular on the one hand and on the other hand causes higher disturbing effects on wildlife than other recreation activities due to various factors - such as the longer duration of stay or the higher speed. Potential conflicts are based on factors like the distribution and habitat use of selected wildlife species, the spatial distribution of the intensity of mountain biking or the behaviour and awareness of the recreationists. Using spatial modelling, the conflict potentials are represented cartographically and form the basis for an integrative spatial conflict management.

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