Irmer U.,Umweltbundesamt Abteilung Wasser and Boden |
Werner S.,Umweltbundesamt Abteilung Wasser and Boden |
Claussen U.,Umweltbundesamt Abteilung Wasser and Boden |
Leujak W.,Umweltbundesamt Abteilung Wasser and Boden |
And 2 more authors.
The German water management system has changed during the last decade. Initially it was focussing on the management of chemical pollution in water bodies only. This has now shifted to a management system using a holistic approach. The approach considers the entire catchment area and besides the management of chemical pollution takes also into account other anthropogenic pressures, such as structural changes and ecological degradation of waterbodies. This change of management strategy implemented through the Water Framework Directive (WFD) (and initiated in Brussels) continues within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The MSFD requires a cumulative assessment of land-based pressures in combination with the assessment of impacts from human activities at sea. These include (e. g.) threats to fish stock, bycatch and habitat destruction through fishing activities, noise pollution through shipping and ramming activities as well as the operation of offshore wind farms. The following describes the current status of the implementation of the two Directives and will outline similarities and differences between them. Source