Mudatenguha F.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Anena J.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Kiptum C.K.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Mashingaidze A.B.,Chinhoyi University of Technology
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2014
Droughts, short growing seasons and poorly distributed rainfall are major constraints to maize production in eastern semi-arid region of Rwanda. In situ rain water harvesting offers an alternative option to reduce rainwater runoff, increase infiltration and storage of water in soil and reduce the effects of drought stress on maize grain yield. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of in situ water harvesting techniques on soil moisture content, maize growth and grain yield in Nyagatare, Rwanda in the 2011-2012 seasons. The study comprised of four treatments: pot holing, tied-ridging and mulching compared to control treatment of planting on the flat. The experimental design was randomized complete block with three replicates. Soil moisture content and maize plant dry weight were measured at 8, 11 and 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). There was a significant increase (P<0.001) in soil moisture content and maize plant dry weight from planting on the flat (control), pot hole, tied ridges to mulching at 8, 11 and 14 WAE. Yield components (ear mass, number of grains per ear and 100 grain weight) and grain yield significantly increased (P<0.001) from planting on the flat, pot holes, tied ridges and were highest in the mulched treatment. Maize grain yield increased(P<0.001) by 49.6, 103 and 136% of the maize grain yield harvested from the flat planting(1593.36 kg ha-1) in the pot-holing, tied ridging and mulching treatments, respectively. The results of this study indicate that mulching, tied ridges and pot holes, in decreasing order of effectiveness, have potential to increase soil moisture content and reduce the damage caused by drought stress to maize growth and grain yield and therefore recommended for farmers in Nyagatare and other drought prone regions. © 2014 Friends Science Publishers.
Dusabumuremyi P.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Niyibigira C.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Mashingaidze A.B.,Umutara Polytechnic
Crop Protection | Year: 2014
Narrow row planting has potential to increase crop growth and yield by increasing radiation interception (RI) and minimizing intra-specific competition in the crop. It reduces weed growth and competitiveness, making resources that are normally taken up by weeds available for crop uptake. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of row spacing on weed biomass, bean growth and yield in a semi arid agro-ecology at Nyagatare, Rwanda. The study was set up as a randomized complete block design in October-December 2009 and repeated in 2011. Planting patterns at a constant bean population density of 111000 plantsha-1 random planting (normal practice), narrow row planting (30cm×30cm), medium row planting (45cm×20cm) and wide row planting (60cm×15cm) were treatments tested in this study. The narrow row square planting pattern significantly (P<0.01) out-yielded the wide and random planting patterns by 22-31% in the wet 2009 season and by 27-70% in the dry 2011 season. Bean plant dry weight (P<0.01) and number of pods per plant (P<0.01) was highest in the narrow row and lowest in the random planting pattern in the dry 2011 season. Bean plant dry weight was not significantly affected (P>0.05) in the wet 2009 season but number of pods plant-1 (P<0.001) was highest in the narrow row and lowest in the random planting pattern. Weed biomass was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the narrow row and the random than in the medium and wide row planting patterns at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after emergence in 2009, but the random planting had the highest weed biomass in 2011. The results suggest that the effects narrow row planting in alleviating the negative impact of inter- and intra-specific competition were more strongly expressed in the dry 2011 season than the wet 2009 season when water was probably not a limiting factor to crop growth and yield. The results also indicate that narrow and equidistant planting has potential to increase bean yield by 30%-70%, when compared to random planting (normal practice) while at the same time suppressing weed growth and is recommended for smallholder farmers in Rwanda and other semi-arid areas in sub-Saharan Africa. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Gadzirayi C.T.,Bindura University of Science Education |
Masamha B.,International Livestock Research Institute |
Mupangwa J.F.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Washaya S.,Bindura University of Science Education
International Journal of Poultry Science | Year: 2012
An exploratory study investigating the effects of supplementing soyabeans with Moringa oleifera leaf meal, as a protein source in poultry production was done at Bindura University Farm. Five different graded levels of Moringa oleifera meal were used in formulating the diets. Ration formulation using soyabean, yellow maize and Moringa oleifera meal as ingredients for broiler starter (20% Crude Protein) and broiler finisher (18% Crude Protein) diets was done using the Pearson Square Method. Twenty-five day old Habbard chicks were randomly allocated to the five treatment diets T1 (0% Moringa oleifera meal), T2 (25% Moringa oleifera meal), T3 (50% Moringa oleifera meal), T4 (75% Moringa oleifera meal) and T5 (100% Moringa oleifera meal) in a completely randomized design. Birds were managed under the dip litter system with five compartments each with five birds for a period of 6 weeks. Weekly weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded throughout the period. Evisceration of carcasses was done after 6 weeks and the different body parts were weighed and recorded. Proximate analysis of Moringa oleifera meal, broiler starter and broiler finisher diets were done and the results were tabulated. Statistical analysis was done using Genstat Software Version 12. No significant differences were noted in the amount of feed taken by broiler birds under different treatments of Moringa oleifera meal, however significant differences in feed conversion ratios were noted. It was therefore concluded that inclusion of Moringa oleifera meal as protein supplement in broiler diets at 25% inclusion level produces broilers of similar weight and growth rate compared to those fed under conventional commercial feeds (p>0.05). © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2012.
Ndayambaje B.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Mushonga B.,Umutara Polytechnic |
Ebong C.,Rwanda Agriculture Board RAB
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2013
Feeding guides for animals are based on body weight Advisory service providers often depend on Heart Girth (HG) and Body Conditions Scores (BCS) as proxy indicators of Live Body Weight (LBW) in mature cattle. But the relationship is affected by a number of factors including breed, parity and physiological status of the animal. There is a tacit gap in understanding the relationships between BCS and LBW and their implications on animal management decisions in developing countries including Rwanda. A study was therefore conducted to determine the effect of genotype and parity on the relationship between BCS and LBW in lactating Ankole cows and their crossbreds with Friesian genotypes. Results revealed that BCS and LBW were more correlated (r≥0.90) in Ankole than in crossbred cows (r≤0.40). The correlation improved the correlation to similar levels in all breeds (r≥0.90) when parity was considered independently. The cows gained 11 -20 kg/Unit BCS because of low frame size. It was concluded that BC Systems were pertinent management tools for developing countries and the relationships between BCS and LBW could be an important selection tool for dairy cattle improvement in Rwanda. © Medwell Journals, 2013.