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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Louvet S.,Ecoclimasol | Paturel J.E.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Mahe G.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Rouche N.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Koite M.,DNM Bamako
Theoretical and Applied Climatology | Year: 2016

The climatic evolution of the Bani river watershed, the main tributary to the upper Niger River, is approached through the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall grids over the 1950–2006 period. The analyses are conducted, and their results compared, using four different methods of spatial interpolation of rainfall fields: the spline, kriging, weighted inverse distance, and nearest neighbor methods. The largest changes are observed for all of these grids, but differences—and in some cases divergent results—appear in the details. The analysis shows a substantial decline in rainfall, particularly marked in the center of the basin, during the 1970–2000 period with respect to the 1950–1969 period, and a slight upturn in the northern part, mainly since the beginning of the 1990s. The rainfall deficit can be attributed to a combination of factors: an earlier and drier end of the rainy season, less precipitation in the middle of the rainy season, more dry days and lower amounts of precipitation on rainy days. Two drought indices—the Effective Drought Index and Standardized Precipitation Index—revealed that the maximum duration of drought events increased most in the central part of the basin. Lastly, to supplement this comparison of methods of spatial interpolation of rainfall fields, the sensitivity of a hydrological model (GR2M) to rainfall data was tested. Given the distribution and density of rain gauge stations available in the Bani watershed, the kriging method is found to yield the best hydrological modeling performance. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Perrin J.L.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Rais N.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah | Chahinian N.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Moulin P.,Center Ird Of Bretagne | Ijjaali M.,University Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014

Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network.The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise.A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Chaouche K.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Neppel L.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Dieulin C.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | Pujol N.,UMR HydroSciences Montpellier | And 4 more authors.
Comptes Rendus - Geoscience | Year: 2010

This study is focused on the western part of the French Mediterranean area, namely the Pyrénées-Orientales and Aude administrative departments. The water resources (surface and groundwater) in the region are sensitive to climate change. The study addresses the question of whether any trend in the annual and monthly series of temperature, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET) already appears at the scale of this region. Two data sources have been used: (a) direct local measurements using the meteorological network; and (b) spatially interpolated data from the French weather service model SAFRAN for the period 1970-2006. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to identify significant trends at the local scale and, because of the natural spatial variability of the Mediterranean climate, regional interpretation was also performed. The trends observed in the 13 catchments of interest are consistent with those observed at a larger scale. An increase in annual mean temperature and annual PET was observed throughout the study area, whereas annual precipitation has not exhibited any trend. The monthly scale has revealed strong seasonal variability in trend. The trend for an increase in monthly PET has been observed mainly in the spring, and has not been seen in the coastal areas. A trend for an increase in monthly temperature has been observed in June and in the spring throughout the entire area. Monthly rainfall has been found to decrease in June and increase in November throughout the area. The significant trends observed in rainfall and temperature seem to be consistent between the different data sources. © 2010 Académie des sciences.

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