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Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Daher Z.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Recorbet G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Valot B.,UMR de Genetique Vegetale | Robert F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 4 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2010

Despite the recognized importance of non-photosynthetic plastids in a wide array of plant processes, the root plastid proteome of soil-grown plants still remains to be explored. In this study, we used a protocol allowing the isolation of Medicago truncatula root plastids with sufficient protein recovery and purity for their subsequent in-depth analysis by nanoscale capillary LC-MS/MS. Besides providing the first picture of a root plastid proteome, the results obtained highlighted the identification of 266 protein candidates whose functional distribution mainly resembled that of wheat endosperm amyloplasts and tobacco proplastids together with displaying major differences to those reported for chloroplasts. Most of the identified proteins have a role in nucleic acid-related processes (16%), carbohydrate (15%) and nitrogen/sulphur (12%) metabolisms together with stress response mechanisms (10%). It is note-worthy that BLAST searches performed against the proteins reported in different plastidomes allowed detecting 30 putative root plastid proteins for which homologues were previously unsuspected as plastid-located, most of them displaying a common putative role in participating in the plant cell responses against abiotic and/or biotic stresses. Taken together, the data obtained provide new insights into the functioning of root plastids and reinforce the emerging idea for an important role of these organelles in sustaining plant defence reactions. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Dawson J.C.,UMR de Genetique Vegetale | Dawson J.C.,Cornell University | Riviere P.,UMR de Genetique Vegetale | Berthellot J.-F.,Reseau Semences Paysannes Cazalens | And 8 more authors.
Sustainability | Year: 2011

Because organic systems present complex environmental stress, plant breeders may either target very focused regions for different varieties, or create heterogeneous populations which can then evolve specific adaptation through on-farm cultivation and selection. This often leads to participatory plant breeding (PPB) strategies which take advantage of the specific knowledge of farmers. Participatory selection requires increased commitment and engagement on the part of the farmers and researchers. Projects may begin as researcher initiatives with farmer participation or farmer initiatives with researcher participation and over time evolve into true collaborations. These projects are difficult to plan in advance because by nature they change to respond to the priorities and interests of the collaborators. Projects need to provide relevant information and analysis in a time-frame that is meaningful for farmers, while remaining scientifically rigorous and innovative. This paper presents two specific studies: the first was a researcher-designed experiment that assessed the potential adaptation of landraces to organic systems through on-farm cultivation and farmer selection. The second is a farmer-led plant breeding project to select bread wheat for organic systems in France. Over the course of these two projects, many discussions among farmers, researchers and farmers associations led to the development of methods that fit the objectives of those involved. This type of project is no longer researcher-led or farmer-led but instead an equal collaboration. Results from the two research projects and the strategy developed for an ongoing collaborative plant breeding project are discussed.© 2011 by the authors.

Dawson J.C.,UMR de Genetique Vegetale | Dawson J.C.,Cornell University | Serpolay E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Giuliano S.,Purpan Engineering School | And 4 more authors.
Genetica | Year: 2012

Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Dawson J.C.,UMR de Genetique Vegetale | Dawson J.C.,Cornell University | Serpolay E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Giuliano S.,Purpan Engineering School | And 9 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2013

The contribution of farmers to the creation and maintenance of genetic diversity is beginning to receive more recognition in developed countries. Although the use of landraces and historic varieties has largely disappeared in countries with industrialized agricultural systems and formal seed markets, certain varieties with particular cultural significance have been continuously cultivated by farmers and other varieties have been preserved ex situ in genebanks. Recently, associations of organic farmers have become involved in the conservation and use of landraces and historic varieties (called farmer varieties in this article) because these varieties possess agronomic and quality traits that they have not found in modern varieties. In this study, eight farmer varieties of bread wheat from Europe selected by participating farmers were evaluated in on-farm trials during 3 years of cultivation. Each variety was grown on each farm, and phenotypic changes in each variety were measured the third year in a replicated split-plot trial on each farm comparing the version of each variety the farmer had multiplied to a sample of each variety from the region of origin. All varieties, including the two modern pureline varieties used as checks, showed statistically significant phenotypic changes over 3 years of multiplication. However, the magnitude of these changes was moderate and did not call into question varietal identity or distinctness. In addition, some traits of putative agronomic and adaptive importance, such as grain weight per spike and thousand kernel weight, did not respond positively to natural selection (environmental conditions and management practices) which suggests the necessity of farmer selection to maintain and improve varietal performance. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Recorbet G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Valot B.,UMR de Genetique Vegetale | Robert F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Gianinazzi-Pearson V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Dumas-Gaudot E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2010

In the absence of sequenced genomes for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, their obligatory biotrophy makes their intra-radical biology especially recalcitrant to functional analyses. Because tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics enables fungal gene product identifications in phyla lacking genomic information, we have compared as a way to enlarge the coverage of in planta expressed-mycorrhiza-related proteins, the root proteome responses of Medicago truncatula upon colonisation with two AM fungi, Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices, using two-dimensional electrophoresis. In contrast to phosphate fertilization, mycorrhization led to specific changes in the abundance of 99 spots, including 42 overlapping modifications between G. mosseae- and G. intraradices-colonised roots. The 32 confident identifications that could be retrieved following tandem mass spectrometry encompassed 21 fungal proteins whose homology-inferred functions were found to complement the working models so far proposed for the intra-radical functioning of AM fungi with regard to carbon utilization, energy generation, redox homeostasis and protein turnover-related processes. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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