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Maisons-Alfort, France

Svitalkova Z.H.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Harustiakova D.,Masaryk University | Mahrikova L.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Mojsova M.,Comenius University | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) is an emerging tick-borne pathogen causing severe disease in immunocompromised patients. In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector and rodents act as reservoir hosts. New data on the prevalence of CNM in ticks and rodents contribute to the knowledge on the distribution of endemic areas and circulation of the bacterium in natural foci. Methods: Questing ticks were collected and rodents were trapped in urban/suburban and natural habitats in South-Western Slovakia from 2011 to 2014. DNA from questing and rodent-attached ticks and rodent tissues were screened for CNM by real-time PCR. Rodent spleen samples positive for CNM were characterised at the groEL gene locus. Spatial and temporal differences in CNM prevalence in ticks and rodents and co-infections of ticks with CNM and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were analysed. Results: The presence of CNM was confirmed in questing and rodent-attached I. ricinus ticks and in rodents. Total prevalence in both ticks and rodents was significantly higher in the natural habitat (2.3 % and 10.1 %, respectively) than in the urban/suburban habitat (1.0 % and 3.3 %, respectively). No seasonal pattern in CNM prevalence in ticks was observed, but prevalence in rodents was higher in autumn than in spring. CNM was detected in Apodemus flavicollis, Myodes glareolus, Microtus arvalis and Micromys minutus, with the highest prevalence in M. arvalis (30 %). By screening CNM dissemination in rodent tissues, infection was detected in lungs of all specimens with positive spleens and in blood, kidney, liver and skin of part of those individuals. Infection with CNM was detected in 1.3 % of rodent attached I. ricinus ticks. Sequences of a fragment of the groEL gene from CNM-positive rodents showed a high degree of identity with sequences of the gene amplified from ticks and infected human blood from Europe. Only 0.1 % of CNM-positive questing ticks carried A. phagocytophilum. Ticks infected with CNM prevailed in the natural habitat (67.2 %), whereas ticks infected with A. phagocytophilum prevailed in the urban/suburban habitat (75.0 %). Conclusion: The study confirmed the circulation of CNM between I. ricinus ticks and rodents in South-Western Slovakia, and indicates a potential risk of contracting human infections. © 2015 Svitálková et al. Source

Poirel L.,University Paris - Sud | Nordmann P.,University Paris - Sud | Ducroz S.,University Paris - Sud | Boulouis H.-J.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie Lcaast | And 2 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Screening of extended-spectrum αlactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria in companion animals living in the Paris area in France identified a high rate of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Those isolates were recovered during the 2010-2011 period from both infections and asymptomatic colonizations. Sequence typing revealed that most of these isolates belonged to sequence type ST274. Interestingly, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was located on a specific and novel plasmid scaffold. These findings highlight that companion animals may be reservoirs for CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae evolving separately from the human reservoir of CTX-M-15 producers. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Cabaret O.,UMR BIPAR | Cabaret O.,Laboratoire Of Parasitologie Mycologie | Puel O.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Botterel F.,UMR BIPAR | And 4 more authors.
Xenobiotica | Year: 2014

The health effects of inhaled mycotoxins remain poorly documented despite their presence in bioaerosols. 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin is produced in association with sterigmatocystin by some Aspergillus spp., sometimes in larger amounts than sterigmatocystin. Whereas sterigmatocystin can be metabolized through cytochromes P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases and sulfotransferases in airway epithelial cells, little is known about 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin. 2.The 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin metabolites were analyzed using human recombinant CYP and porcine tracheal epithelial cell (PTEC) primary cultures at an air-liquid interface. The induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes was examined by real-time quantitative PCR for mRNA expression and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. 3.CYP1A1 metabolized 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin into hydroxy-nor-methoxy- sterigmatocystin, nor-methoxy-sterigmatocystin and dihydroxy-methoxy- sterigmatocystin. CYP1A2 led to monohydroxy-methoxy-sterigmatocystin. In PTEC, 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin metabolism resulted into a glucuroconjugate of 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin, a sulfoconjugate and a glucuroconjugate of monohydroxy-methoxy-sterigmatocystin. The exposure of PTEC for 24h to 1M 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin induced a significant increase in the mRNA levels of CYP1A1, without significant induction of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. 4.These data suggest that 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin is mainly detoxified in airway cells through conjugation, as sterigmatocystin. However, while CYP produced a reactive metabolite of sterigmatocystin, no such metabolite was detected with 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin. Nevertheless, 5-methoxy-sterigmatocystin increases the CYP1A1 mRNA levels. The long-term consequences remain unknown. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Vayssier-Taussat M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Vayssier-Taussat M.,University of Basel | Rhun D.L.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Deng H.K.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 14 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2010

Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The a-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS) Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage to facilitate host-restricted adhesion to erythrocytes in a wide range of mammals. © 2010 Vayssier-Taussat et al. Source

Bouhsira E.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Franc M.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Lienard E.,National Veterinary School of Toulouse | Bouillin C.,UMR BIPAR | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2015

Bartonella henselae is the causative agent of cat scratch disease in humans, which is recognized as an emerging zoonotic disease. Ctenocephalides felis is the main vector, and transmission of B. henselae infection between cats and humans occurs mainly through infected flea feces. Control of feline infestation with this arthropod vector therefore provides an important strategy for the prevention of infection of both humans and cats. In the present study, a new challenge model is used to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin (Stronghold® spot on) in the prevention of B. henselae transmission by C. felis. In this new challenge model, domestic cats were infected by direct application of B. henselae-positive fleas. The fleas used for infestation were infected by feeding on blood that contained in vitro-cultured B. henselae. The direct application of the fleas to the animals and the use of different B. henselae strains ensured a high and consistent challenge. Two groups of six cats were randomly allocated on pre-treatment flea counts to either control (untreated cats) or the selamectin-treated group with one pipette per cat according to the label instruction. Stronghold (selamectin 6 % spot on solution) was administered on days 0 and 32. On days 3, 10, 19, 25, and 31, each cat was infested by direct application of 20 fleas that fed on blood inoculated with B. henselae. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on pooled fleas confirmed that the fleas were infected. Blood samples were collected from each cat on days −3 (prior to flea infestation and treatment), 9, 17, 24, 30, 37, and 44 and assayed for B. henselae antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), for the presence of bacteria by bacterial culture and for B. henselae DNA presence by PCR. Cats were also assessed on a daily basis for general health. There were no abnormal health observations during the study and none of the animals required concomitant treatment. None of the cats displayed any clinical signs of bartonellosis during the study. In the untreated group, all cats became bacteremic within 17 to 44 days. None of the selamectin-treated cats became positive during the study. It was concluded that Stronghold® spot on administered to cats was efficacious in the prevention of the transmission of B. henselae by fleas to cats in a high-challenge model. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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