UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies

Montpellier, France

UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies

Montpellier, France

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Acerbi F.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Guillard V.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Aliani M.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Guillaume C.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Gontard N.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2016

Despite the fact that CO2 production by Propionic Acid Bacteria (PAB) fermentation is the driving force for eye growth in most hard and semi-hard cheese types, few coefficients of CO2 production have been assessed in literature. In this study, the diffusion free CO2 production rate coefficient was experimentally assessed in semi-hard cheese as a function of salt content (0-1.3% w/w), ripening temperature (13-25 °C) and ripening time (2 weeks). The CO2 production rate decreased linearly with increasing salt content due to the inhibition effects of salt on the PAB, while it increased with temperature, due to the vicinity with the PAB optimum growth temperature (25-30 °C). A lower rate of production was observed in the first days of ripening, followed by an increase in CO2 production rate and consequent decrease due to the lower availability of the main substrate (lactate). We proposed a polynomial equation for predicting changes in the CO2 production rate during ripening. This equation may be used to better describe the phenomenon of eye growth occurring in cheese with propionic acid fermentation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Acerbi F.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Guillard V.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Aliani M.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Guillaume C.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Gontard N.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies
Food Research International | Year: 2015

CO2 is produced by many microorganisms present in cheese and it can affect cheese quality both during processing and storage. The knowledge of the extent of CO2 production by cheese microorganism (CO2 production rate coefficients) may be used to predict gas exchange in cheese/packaging systems, helping dairy industries in the right choice of the packaging (higher/lower gas permeability) and mastering of cheese ripening. However very few coefficients for CO2 production rate have been published and the ones assessed in vitro (not inside real food) may not well describe the activity of the microorganisms in situ. We have therefore developed a methodology for the in situ assessment of CO2 production rate and applied it to cheese with propionic acid fermentation. The proposed methodology is based on infra-red measurement of CO2 and it allows measuring its accumulation up to 1% with 0.001% resolution, while monitoring the level of oxygen. The method showed a good repeatability, with a low coefficient of variation within samples (6.6%) and between samples (8.4%) compared to 10-30% between samples found in literature. The method was compared with a gas chromatography based method, which is also described. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Acerbi F.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Guillard V.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Guillaume C.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies | Gontard N.,UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies
Food Packaging and Shelf Life | Year: 2016

Assessing gas permeation of the whole food packaging in industrial conditions (RH, temperature including stretching and sealing effect) is fundamental for predicting the quality changes of packed food during processing and shelf life. Permeability coefficients are usually assessed on a small flat, piece of packaging material which is not representative of the whole pack (usually assembly of tray + lid film or pouches of flexible films sealed on at least 2 or 3 sides) used in the industry. Moreover, conditions used are standardised (temperature of 23 °C, 0%RH) which are not representative of conditions that prevail in real use. This simplified approach may lead to erroneous mass transfer predictions when simplified permeability values are used in calculation. To face this problem, we propose a simple methodology for the assessment of the gas permeability coefficients (N2, CO2, O2) in sealed intact large scale (industrial) packaging (whole packaging) in conditions of temp and RH mimicking the real conditions of use (encountered by the material in contact with the food product). The CO2 permeability assessed in the industrial-like conditions was significantly higher compared to the one assessed with standard method. The higher gas permeation measured was ascribed to the impact of industrial operations such as shrinking and hot sealing. Our results highlight the necessity to better characterize impacts of industrial conditions such as hot sealing and shrinking on the permeability of the whole pack when prediction of gas permeation through packaging during food processing is needed. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | UMR 1208 IATE Agropolymer Engineering and Emerging Technologies
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

Despite CO2 being one of the most important gases affecting the quality of most semi-hard cheeses, the thermodynamic properties of this molecule in relation to cheese ripening have rarely been investigated. In this study the CO2 solubility coefficient was experimentally assessed in semi-hard cheese as a function of the most relevant compositional and ripening variables. As expected, CO2 solubility was found to linearly decrease with temperature in the range 2-25 C. Unexpectedly, solubility was not significantly different at 39% and 48% moisture, while it was found lower at 42%. Unavoidable changes in protein content of the three cheese variants is suspected to produce an interaction with water content, leading to complex interpretation of the results. Increasing salt content in cheese from 0 to 2.7%w/w significantly decreased CO2 solubility by about 25%, probably due to the increased bonded water molecules in the cheese water phase.

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