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North Bergen, NJ, United States

International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics | Year: 2012

Diabetes incidence is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanisation, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. This has spurred efforts to apply imaging techniques to gain better understanding of pathogenesis of diabetes. In particular, efforts have been focused on imaging the pancreatic islets for insulin-producing beta-cells. As insulin is the primary hormone involved in glucose regulation, variations in pancreatic beta-cell mass (BCM) are central to the etiology of diabetes. Location of pancreas and sparse distribution of beta-cells within the pancreas have thus far posed challenges in accurate BCM quantification for early diabetes detection. However, recent advances in the application of molecular imaging techniques exhibit potential in early detection and prevention of diabetes progression. They have been used with promising success for visualisation and quantification of BCM in experimental and clinical settings. We review the strengths and weaknesses of molecular imaging modalities as applied towards diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

Vyas R.,UMDNJ SHRP | Haque S.,UMDNJ SHRP | Mital D.P.,UMDNJ SHRP | Srinivasan S.,UMDNJ SHRP
International Journal of Medical Engineering and Informatics | Year: 2013

Analysis concludes that the risk occurrence of lung cancer follows an order from high to low: upper lobe, lower lobe, other-parts of the lung, main bronchus, and middle lobe. We have also examined the association of each category of lung with gender and race too. The overall lung cancer analysis indicate that White and Black Americans have the higher risk of getting lung cancer as compared with other races, but anatomical category of lung cancer indicates White American are more susceptible to each category of lung except other-part of lung as compared with other races. The odds ratio analysis for each anatomical site concludes White male and female [odds ratio of all sub category-male/female 1.03 to 1.08] are equally susceptible to each category of lung. The Black females [odds ratio of lower lobe-male/female 1.08] are highly associated with lower lobe lung cancer as compared with Black males while Hispanic, Asian and Native American females are more associated with middle lobe lung cancer as compared with Hispanic, Asian and native American males [odds ratio for middle lobe-male/female 0.89 to 0.95]. © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Source

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