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Francis C.A.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Francis C.A.,UMB As | Hansen T.E.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Fox A.A.,UMB As | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability

Conversion of farmland to non-agricultural uses presents a challenge to future food production and ecosystem services in US and Canada. Expansions of housing, transportation, industry, retail sales, schools and other developments are driving land out of farming. In the US there is annual conversion of 500,000 ha away from food and fibre production systems. Coupled with 1% annual population increase, this will reduce today's 0.6 ha per person to 0.3 ha by 2050. Canada has more land and smaller population, but farmland losses are occurring in fertile areas near coasts and in level valleys where highest quality land is located. Current rates of increase in agricultural productivity will not compensate for this land loss. Compared to US, there are more specific tools and legislation at the provincial level in Canada that provide opportunities for controlling sprawl. Important in both countries is general lack of awareness and concern about loss of productive farmland, a situation that could be improved through education. Stimulating collective understanding of this growing problem and providing viable solutions could provide the basis for national policy strategies to promote and assure sustainable food systems for the future and enhance the capacity to maintain vital ecosystem services. © 2012 Taylor & Francis. Source

Aarak K.E.,UMB As | Aarak K.E.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Kirkhus B.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Johansen S.,Norwegian Institute of Food | And 2 more authors.
Food and Function

The aim of the present work was to study the effect of a broccoli phytochemical extract (Br-ex) on the release of fatty acids (FA) from salmon muscle (SM) and salmon oil (SO) during in vitro digestion. The hypothesis of the study was that Br-ex contains polyphenols which might act as pancreatic lipase inhibitors. The effect on the release of specific FA, in particular the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), EPA (C20:5 n-3) and DHA (C22:6 n-3), was recorded, and the impact of the SM matrix was studied by comparing the release of FA from SM and SO. In vitro digestion was performed and lipolytic activity, measured as the release of fatty acids (FFA) by solid phase extraction and GC-FID, was recorded at 20, 40, 80 and 140 minutes in the intestinal phase. The results showed, unexpectedly, that Br-ex stimulated the release of FA during digestion of SO and SM, showing the highest increases in FFA, 67% and 64%, respectively, at 20 min. No difference in the release of FA from SO compared to SM was observed, suggesting that the SM matrix had minor influence on the lipolytic activity. The results also demonstrated that the increase in lipolytic activity caused by Br-ex was not affected by the SM matrix. However, addition of Br-ex resulted in a lower percentage of EPA and DHA in the FFA fraction, suggesting that the lipase sn-position preference was altered. Whether this affects the bioaccessibility of EPA and DHA needs further investigation. © the Partner Organisations 2014. Source

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