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Beersheba, Israel

Yagel S.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Kivilevitch Z.,Ultrasound Unit | Cohen S.M.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Valsky D.V.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 3 more authors.
Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

The human fetal venous system is well-recognized as atarget for investigation in cases of circulatory compromise, and a broad spectrum of malformations affecting thissystem has been described. In Part I of this review, we described the normal embryology, anatomy andphysiology of this system, essential to the understandingof structural anomalies and the sequential changesencountered in intrauterine growth restriction and otherdevelopmental disorders. In Part II we review the etiologyand sonographic appearance of malformations of thehuman fetal venous system, discuss the pathophysiologyof the system and describe venous Doppler investigationin the fetus with circulatory compromise. Copyright © 2010 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Sabria J.,Ultrasound Unit
Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy | Year: 2012

Objective: To update the reference ranges for the ductus venosus pulsatility index (DVPI) at 11+0 to 13+6 gestational weeks. Methods: DVPI was calculated in 14,444 singleton fetuses at 11+0 to 13+6 weeks in two Fetal Medicine Centers, during a 4-year period. Using previously described medians, DVPI evolution was assessed both over the study period on a yearly basis and over gestation, grouping fetuses according to 5-mm crown-rump length (CRL) ranges. Weighted DVPI medians, the 5th and 95th percentiles and distribution parameters for unaffected and trisomy 21 fetuses were newly calculated. Results: A significant DVPI multiple of the median decrease was observed over both the study period (p < 0.01) and over gestation (p < 0.01) using previous medians, in the two centers. Newly calculated weighted medians were lower than those previously described, decreasing with CRL. Distribution parameters calculated using the new medians were different from those previously described. Conclusion: DVPI reference ranges were lower than those previously reported and decreased with CRL. Updated medians and distribution parameters should be considered to include the DVPI as a Gaussian marker in trisomy 21 screening and for quality control purposes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Pall M.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Azziz R.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Azziz R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Beires J.,Ultrasound Unit | Pignatelli D.,Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology
Fertility and Sterility | Year: 2010

Objective: To test the hypothesis that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are distinguishable from those with 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia on the basis of having polycystic ovaries and metabolic dysfunction. Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Tertiary care center. Patient(s): Fifty-two lean and 54 obese women with PCOS according to the 1990 National Institutes of Health criteria, 23 women with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia, and 27 controls. Intervention(s): History and physical examination, blood sampling, ovarian sonography, oral glucose tolerance, and acute adrenocorticotropin stimulation testing. Main Outcome Measure(s): The frequency of clinical, biochemical, and metabolic features. Result(s): Women with PCOS had a higher frequency of oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea than those with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia. Mean androstenedione and DHEAS levels were highest in nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia. The degree of metabolic dysfunction was greatest in obese women with PCOS; women with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia and lean women with PCOS did not differ in degree of metabolic dysfunction. Women with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia had a lower prevalence of polycystic ovaries than those with PCOS. The proportion of patients with an LH/FSH ratio >2 was greater in women with PCOS, compared with those with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia. Basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels >2 ng/mL were found in 87%, 25%, 20%, and 7% of women with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia, lean women with PCOS, obese women with PCOS, and controls, respectively. Conclusion(s): Nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia should be excluded in all women presenting with hirsutism, with use of a basal follicular phase 17-hydroxyprogesterone level, regardless of the presence of polycystic ovaries or metabolic dysfunction; however, women with nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia have a higher prevalence of normal ovulation and lower likelihood of having an LH/FSH ratio >2 or polycystic ovaries. © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Source

Gonzalez R.,Ultrasound Unit | Aedo S.,University of Chile | Dezerega V.,Barros Luco Trudeau Hospital | Sepulveda W.,Fetal Medicine Center
Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine | Year: 2013

Objectives-To report normative data for the fetal nasal bone length (NBL), frontonasal fold (FNF) thickness, and the FNF/NBL ratio and to study their performance in the sonographic screening of trisomy 21 in a normal, unselected Latin American population. Methods-Women undergoing a routine sonographic examination between 16 and 32 weeks' gestation at a primary health care center in Santiago, Chile, were prospectively recruited for NBL and FNF thickness measurements. Pregnancies with maternal/fetal complications were subsequently excluded from analysis. Correlations between NBL, FNF thickness, and FNF/NBL ratio and gestational age were assessed with the Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ). To generate reference percentiles for NBL and FNF thickness, adjusted regression models were derived using a statistical method for calculating reference percentiles of fetal biometric parameters. Results-A total of 1922 cases complied with entry criteria. Both the NBL and the FNF thickness increased with gestational age. However, the FNF/NBL ratio remained constant (ρ= 0.016; P=.95), with a mean value of 0.68 and 95th and 99th percentile values of 0.84 and 0.90, respectively. During the study period, all 4 fetuses with trisomy 21 diagnosed in this low-risk population had an FNF/NBL ratio above the 99th percentile, whereas only 3 had NBL below the fifth percentile, and 3 had FNF thickness above the 95th percentile. Conclusions-The FNF/NBL ratio is a promising marker for the sonographic screening of trisomy 21 in the low-risk population; however, further prospective studies including larger numbers of fetuses with trisomy 21 are warranted to determine the clinical value of this marker. As the NBL is dependent on the ethnicity of the population screened, determination of normative data for NBL and the FNF/NBL ratio in different ethnic populations is also recommended before including this method in the routine screening for aneuploidy. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine. Source

Yefet E.,Emek Medical Center | Daniel-Spiegel E.,Emek Medical Center | Daniel-Spiegel E.,Ultrasound Unit
Pediatrics | Year: 2016

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of children from pregnancies complicated with polyhydramnios, defined as amniotic fluid index (AFI) >24 cm, and with a normal detailed ultrasound examination. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 134 children aged 4 to 9 years with polyhydramnios and normal detailed ultrasound examination during pregnancy compared with 268 controls with normal AFI and normal detailed ultrasound examination matched for maternal age, year of delivery, gestational week at delivery, and presence or absence of diabetes. The primary outcome was the rate of malformations diagnosed postnatally. Additional outcomes were obstetrics outcomes, genetic syndromes, and neurodevelopment. RESULTS: Polyhydramnios was associated with increased risk for cesarean delivery (CD) and birth weight >90th percentile. This elevation in CD was attributed to increased rate of elective CD due to suspected macrosomia. Polyhydramnios was associated with increased risk for congenital malformations (n = 25 [19%] compared with 27 [10%], respectively; P = .016) without a statistically significant increase in the rate of major malformations (11 [8%] vs. 10 [4%]; P = .057). Genetic syndromes were more prevalent in the polyhydramnios group (5 [3.7%] vs. 2 [0.75%]; P = .043), as were neurologic disorders and developmental delay (9.7% vs. 3%; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a normal detailed ultrasound examination, polyhydramnios is associated with increased rate of fetal malformations, genetic syndromes, neurologic disorders, and developmental delay, which may be diagnosed only after birth. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

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