Choi M.K.,University of Ulsan |
Choi M.K.,Ulsan Institute of Health and Environment |
Moon C.H.,University of Ulsan |
Moon C.H.,U.S. Geological Survey |
And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
The nonvirion (NV) protein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) has been previously reported to be essential for efficient growth and pathogenicity of IHNV. However, little is known about the mechanism by which the NV supports the viral growth. In this study, cellular localization of NV and its role in IHNV growth in host cells was investigated. Through transient transfection in RTG-2 cells of NV fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP), a nuclear localization of NV was demonstrated. Deletion analyses showed that the 32EGDL 35 residues were essential for nuclear localization of NV protein, and fusion of these 4 amino acids to GFP directed its transport to the nucleus. We generated a recombinant IHNV, rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL in which the 32EGDL 35 was deleted from the NV. rIHNVs with wild-type NV (rIHNV-NV) or with the NV gene replaced with GFP (rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP) were used as controls. RTG-2 cells infected with rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL yielded 12- and 5-fold less infectious virion, respectively, than wild type rIHNV-infected cells at 48 h post-infection (p.i.). While treatment with poly I:C at 24 h p.i. did not inhibit replication of wild-type rIHNVs, replication rates of rIHNV-ΔNV-GFP and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL were inhibited by poly I:C. In addition, both rIHNV-ΔNV and rIHNV-NV-ΔEGDL induced higher levels of expressions of both IFN1 and Mx1 than wild-type rIHNV. These data suggest that the IHNV NV may support the growth of IHNV through inhibition of the INF system and the amino acid residues of 32EGDL 35 responsible for nuclear localization are important for the inhibitory activity of NV. © 2011 Choi et al.
Lee K.-M.,Chonnam National University |
Lee K.-M.,Ulsan Institute of Health and Environment |
Lee I.-C.,Chonnam National University |
Kim S.-H.,Chonnam National University |
And 6 more authors.
Andrologia | Year: 2012
This study investigated the protective effects of melatonin (MLT) against doxorubicin (DXR)-induced testicular toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. DXR was given as a single intraperitoneal dose of 10 mg kg -1 body weight to male rats at 1 h after MLT treatment on day 6 of the study. MLT at 15 mg kg -1 body weight was administered daily by gavage for 5 days before DXR treatment followed by an additional dose for 5 days. Sperm analysis, histopathological examination and biochemical methods were used for this investigation. DXR caused a decrease in the weight of seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm count and motility and an increase in the incidence of histopathological changes of the testis. In addition, an increased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and decreased glutathione content, glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were observed. On the contrary, MLT treatment significantly ameliorated DXR-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Moreover, MDA concentration and GR, GST and SOD activities were not affected when MLT was administered in conjunction with DXR. These results indicate that MLT had a protective effect against DXR-induced testicular toxicity and that the protective effects of MLT may be due to both the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant activity. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Noh H.-J.,University of Ulsan |
Kim C.-S.,University of Ulsan |
Kang J.-H.,University of Ulsan |
Park J.-Y.,Ulsan Institute of Health and Environment |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2014
Obesity-induced inflammation is characterized by recruitment of adipose tissue macrophages that release inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. MIP-1α (macrophage inflammatory protein 1α)/CCL3, a CC chemokine, induces monocyte/macrophage infiltration and thus is implicated in obesity-induced adipose inflammation. Quercetin has been shown to modulate obesity-induced inflammation, but the mechanism of its action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that quercetin decreases MIP-1α release from adipocytes and macrophages and from cocultured adipocytes/macrophages; it also opposes MIP-1α-induced macrophage infiltration and activation. The inhibitory action of quercetin on the MIP-1α-induced inflammatory responses of macrophages is mediated by downregulation of CCR1/CCR5, and inhibition of activation of JNK, p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK), and IKK as well as IκBα degradation. These findings suggest that quercetin may be a useful agent against obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.
Mutlu A.,University of Ulsan |
Lee B.-K.,University of Ulsan |
Park G.-H.,Busan Institute of Health and Environmental Research |
Yu B.-G.,Ulsan Institute of Health and Environment |
Lee C.-H.,University of Ulsan
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2012
The long-term concentrations of cadmium (Cd) in total suspended particulate (TSP) were calculated from data obtained from 30 ambient air-monitoring stations (AAMSs) located in seven metropolitan cities throughout Korea. The annual mean levels of Cd in TSP in port cities, industrial cities, and an inland city showed a decreasing trend over the 7-year study period. The overall highest average concentration was observed in Incheon with an annual mean of 3.92±1.62ngm -3, followed by Ulsan and Busan. The long-term Cd mean levels from international port and/or industrial cities (Incheon, Ulsan, Busan) were much higher than those from inland cities (Seoul, Daegu, Daejeon, and Gwangju). Temporal analysis indicated that there were no significant differences among Cd levels in different seasons. However, in Incheon, the seasonal average concentrations of Cd in spring, winter, and fall were 5.20 (±3.27)ngm -3, 4.01 (±0.93)ngm -3, and 3.5 (±0.77)ngm -3, respectively, which were significantly higher levels than those measured in the other cities for the corresponding seasons. These high concentrations in Incheon are likely due to the combined effects of local industries, traffic, ship emissions, and long-range transported PM from the northeastern industrial regions of China. The long-term summer average concentration in Ulsan, the largest industrial city, was 4.58±1.15ngm -3, which was significantly higher than the other seasonal values and also the summer averages of the other cities. This can be explained by downwind location effects of prevailing winds that pass through the industrial and port sectors of Ulsan. Excess cancer risk (ECR) estimates indicated that the carcinogenic risk due to inhaled Cd is 7, 6, and 4 persons per million of population in Incheon, Ulsan, and Busan, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.