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Klaschka U.,Ulm University of Applied Sciences
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health | Year: 2012

According to the so-called " 26 allergens rule" 26 supposedly allergenic fragrances must be specified on the containers of cosmetic products if they are present above 0.001% in leave-on products and, 0.01% in rinse-off products. This declaration is meant to inform the consumers of potential risks of skin sensitizers in the products. As many consumers of deodorants suffer from allergic or irritant contact dermatitis in the axillae, the presence of allergens in deodorants deserves special attention.The objective of this study was to find answers to the following questions: Does compulsory labeling lead to omission of strong allergenic fragrances in deodorants? Is there a difference in the use patterns of strong and weak allergens? What is the quantitative exposure to fragrances by deodorants? Is the situation in Germany different from other European countries? Is there a difference between deodorants for men and for women?I tested the implementation of the " 26 allergens rule" and compiled which allergenic fragrances are specified on the containers of deodorants. Three market studies were conducted in Germany in 2008, 2010 and 2011. The labels of a total number of 374 deodorants were analyzed as to whether any of the " 26 allergens" were listed. The frequency of each allergen in the deodorants was compared with results from previous studies by other authors.It was found that up to 83% of the deodorants contain at least one of the " 26 allergens" and that up to 30% of all products contain strong allergens above the threshold for labeling (0.001% in the product). The most frequently listed allergens are medium or weak allergens. In comparison with other authors, the frequency of the " 26 allergens" in products is slightly smaller in these recent studies for the German market. There is no significant difference between deodorants for men and women, as far as the labeling of the " 26 allergens" is concerned.The results show that the mandatory labeling procedure as designed in the " 26 allergen rule" is not suitable to guarantee consumer safety for deodorants. As long as consumers are not informed about allergens in products in an easy to understand and transparent way, a compulsory pictogram on the container should inform them about possible risks. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Klaschka U.,Ulm University of Applied Sciences
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2012

Background: Cosmetic products need not be classified and labelled according to the Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) in the European Union, even if they contain dangerous substances. What would happen without this exception? Would cosmetic products have to be labelled if they were treated like any other consumer product? Results: The criteria of the CLP Regulation were applied to a selection of cosmetic product formulas in a conservative approach. All but one product contain hazardous ingredients in amounts that would lead to classification and labelling of the mixtures. 85% of the products analyzed would have to be labelled because of potential negative effects to the eye, and 52% because of potential negative effects to the skin. The signal word WARNING would have to be on the labels of 64%, DANGER would have to be on 33% of the products. Conclusions: The results here show that it is urgent to inform consumers about the potential dangers of personal care products, because cosmetics need to be applied even with more care than any other consumer product. Classification and labelling according to the CLP Regulation is a very good means to improve the risk communication for consumers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that the exception for cosmetic products should be repealed in the next amendment of the CLP Regulation. © 2012 Dakal and Cameotra; licensee Springer.


Klaschka U.,Ulm University of Applied Sciences
Environmental Sciences Europe | Year: 2015

Background: Nature offers an incredible diversity of chemical compounds that boast a wide array of physiological effects. Many natural substances are employed in personal care products. Which of these natural substances are hazardous ingredients? How do European legal instruments regulate natural substances with toxic effects? Results: 1,358 natural substances appear in the ‘International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients’ (INCI list, ‘inventory …… of ingredients employed in cosmetic products’) [Commission Decision 96/335/EC], most of them are herbal products, others are of animal, fungal, or bacterial origin. Out of these, 655 natural substances are enrolled in the EU database for classification and labeling, with 56% classified as hazardous chemicals, 38% classified due to their hazards to human health (35% due to their effects on skin and eyes), and 21% due to their hazards to the environment. 53 natural substances in the INCI list are classified as carcinogens, mutagens, and substances toxic to reproduction. Many classifications are not in line with expectations from experience, such as severe classifications of substances derived from some basic food plants or lacking classification of known medical plants or plants with sensitizing potential. Classification and labeling is a trigger for the registration requirements according to REACH. It must be assumed that there are more substances that should undergo the REACH process among the 703 natural substances that do not turn up in the C&L inventory. Conclusions: Many natural substances used in personal care products have toxic properties. The interdisciplinary compilation and analysis of regulatory instruments concerning natural substances revealed some inconsistencies which need further analysis and urgent correction to ensure prudent handling in consumer products. © 2015, Klaschka; licensee Springer.


Walter T.,Ulm University of Applied Sciences
Semiconductors and Semimetals | Year: 2015

Solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) have reached a high degree of maturity as confirmed by conversion efficiencies exceeding 21% on a laboratory scale and module efficiencies approaching 16%. However, maturity of a PV technology also requires reliability and long-term stability. Therefore, upcoming reliability aspects of CIGS-based solar cells are the focus of this chapter. Metastabilities, partial shading, PID, and the impact of the back contact will be presented and discussed regarding their influence on the long-term stability and reliability. It will be pointed out that an understanding of the underlying physics is essential not only to optimize the long-term stability but also to predict the lifetime of solar cells and modules. Especially, high-efficiency devices and the pressure to cut down costs impose an even higher challenge on manufacturers and researchers in the field of reliability. As an outcome, it will be shown that CIGS exhibits distinct beneficial properties with respect to reliability. However, the development of highly efficient modules also involves new reliability issues which have to be investigated in detail in order to assure the stability of this emerging PV technology. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Klaschka U.,Ulm University of Applied Sciences
Integrated environmental assessment and management | Year: 2013

Contact allergy is a global health problem that could be alleviated considerably if the general public could reduce contact to sensitizers. Efficient hazard communication would be a valuable instrument to achieve this. What do current regulations concerning fragrance sensitizers in cosmetic products in Europe contribute? For example, there are bans and restrictions according to the Cosmetic Regulation, there is the "26 allergens rule" that requires that the names of some allergenic fragrance ingredients are listed on the containers, there is labeling and classification of hazardous products according to Regulation 1272/2008, and there is the regulation concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH). Do these regulations increase consumer protection by suitable hazard communication instruments? Four main problems were identified. First, according to the 26 allergens rule, consumers carry a very large part of the responsibility for risk reduction management. They need to be capable and motivated to recognize the names of strong allergens listed in the ingredient list and decide for themselves whether they want to run the risk or not, provided that they are aware of their responsibility. Second, cosmetic products do not need to be classified and labeled like other consumer goods, according to the European Commission Regulation 1272/2008, if they contain hazardous substances. Third, some pictograms for hazardous substances, for example, the exclamation mark for sensitizers, are not well understood by the majority of the general public. Fourth, very often, the design of cosmetic containers implies health and well being, even if the respective products contain sensitizers or other hazardous substances. Against this background, the following improvements are proposed: 1) the 26 allergens rule needs revision, 2) the exception for cosmetic products from labeling and classification should be abolished, 3) a new self-explanatory pictogram for skin sensitizers and skin irritants should become mandatory for consumer products containing allergens, and 4) packaging of products containing hazardous substances should not be allowed to be attractive and evoke feelings that the products were harmless. Labeling of consumer products can be a very efficient tool for risk communication, however, the addressees must be sufficiently trained to understand the system and know the consequences of their behavior. Transparent labeling will increase the credibility of manufacturers and can lead to a subsequent improved risk management with a benefit for all stakeholders. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

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