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Van Cauwenberge F.,Service dOphtalmologie | Rakic J.-M.,Service dOphtalmologie | Rorive G.,ULg
Revue Medicale de Liege

With the introduction of the use of Laser assisted surgery, refractive eye surgery knows a very large success. Surgery of well being, it requires that an extensive information is delivered to the patient concerning the benefit and possible side-effects of the available treatments. This information process may reduce the frequency of negligence claims relating to Laser eye surgery. Source

Dumont R.,ULg | Loly J.-P.,University of Liege | Delwaide J.,University of Liege | Louis E.,University of Liege
Revue Medicale de Liege

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) also known as Rendu-Osler disease is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as the brain, lungs, and liver. The prevalence of liver involvement is clinically estimated between 8 and 31 percent. It can be revealed by the following clinical signs : ascites, edema of the lower extremities, abdominal pain, dyspnea, and, rarely, hepatic encephalopathy and gastrointestinal bleeding associated with portal hypertension. This case illustrates the highlight of liver damage revealed by an ammonia encephalopathy associated with iconographic anomalies on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance liver as part of Rendu-Osler disease. Source

Danthine S.,ULg | Delatte S.,ULg | Blecker C.,ULg | Smith K.W.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Bhaggan K.,Loders Croklaan B.V.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology

Filling fats are used in bakery and confectionery applications. These fats are made up of complex mixtures of triacylglycerols (TAG). The crystallization, melting behaviour and polymorphic stability of fat blends are determined by the behaviour of the TAGs that they contain. Filling functionalities are influenced by their fat composition but also by the processing conditions used for crystallization. In this study, the crystallization behaviour of fat blends, all based on shea stearin as hard fat (which is high in 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (SOS)) combined with either sunflower oil, shea olein or rapeseed oil, were investigated by means of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Blends containing either 30 or 40% shea stearin combined with one of the soft fats were selected as they met the criteria required for filling fats. Under static isothermal conditions (at 10°C, 15°C or 20°C), a two-step crystallization was observed for those blends, which can be explained by polymorphic transitions from α-form into more stable forms. All the selected blends exhibited different crystallization mechanisms according to the TAG composition of the liquid phase and their complementarity with TAG from the solid phase. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Destain M.-F.,ULg | Roisin C.,CRA W | Dalcq A.-S.,ULg | Mercatoris B.C.N.,ULg

The effects of machine traffic were assessed on a Luvisol in a temperate climate area in Belgium. Soil samples were taken from topsoil (0.07-0.25 m) and subsoil (0.35-0.50 m), on plots under long-term reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT). Cone index (CI), bulk density (BD) and precompression stress (Pc) were chosen as indicators of mechanical strength. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to characterise the soil microporosity structure. It was presented in two forms: (i) cumulative pore volume vs. equivalent pore radius r, from which four classes of porosity were defined: r< 0.2 μm, 0.2 ≤ r< 9 μm, 9 ≤ r< 73 μm and r≥ 73 μm and (ii) pore-size distribution (PSD). In the reference situation where there had been no recent passage of machines, the voids with 0.2 ≤ r< 9 μm were the most important class in RT topsoil. The voids with r≥ 73 μm represented the main porosity class in the topsoil of CT. In the subsoil, for both tillage systems, the porosity was almost equally distributed between voids with 0.2 ≤ r< 9 μm and voids with r greater than 9 μm.Machine traffic was carried out when the soil water content was close to the optimum Proctor. Although unfavourable, these wet conditions often occur during the beet harvesting period in Belgium. The highest modifications in soil structure (increase in BD and Pc, reduction of macroporosity r≥ 73 μm) were observed in the topsoil of CT. More limited modifications were noticed in the soil structure of RT topsoil and subsoil layers but these latter are problematic in that the soil would no longer be loosened by subsequent tillage. These modifications could lead to soil consolidation as a result of wheel traffic year after year. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Cloet E.,Elia System Operator | Lilien J.-L.,ULg | Ferrieres P.,French Electricity Transmission Network
43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010

Growing demand for power is a major challenge for grid operators worldwide, who are all finding it near impossible to build new lines. Because of this, transmission system operators (TSOs) must explore the idea of increasing the capacity of the existing transmission lines. One way to do this is to maximise the use of the conductors on the towers. To this end, Elia - the Belgian system operator - decided to take part in the Ampacimon project (short for ampacity monitoring), launched by the University of Liége. French system operator RTE also showed strong interest in the project and decided to follow it up in collaboration with Elia and ULg. To identify the optimum load for their HV lines, TSOs require a reliable dynamic rating system which is easy to install. This article documents TSOs' use of the Ampacimon innovative rating system to determine line ampacity. The Ampacimon system measures the sag of an overhead HV line in real time. The sag - resulting from load and ambient factors such as temperature, wind direction and wind speed - is determined only by measuring conductor vibrations. Conductor vibrations are measured using accelerometers. Conductor sag is calculated based on these measurements using data processing (fast Fourier transform) and simple mathematical formulae Once the sag is determined, a special software application can be used to calculate the line's maximum permissible current and make appropriate forecasts. A number of measurement modules have been fitted on the HV grids operated by Elia and RTE. Experience has clearly demonstrated that conductor sag is highly variable and heavily dependent on local weather conditions. The Ampacimon real time monitoring system has been proven to be accurate with a sag error margin of 2% which is consistent with a safe real time operation of the instrumented lines. Source

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