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Prague, Czech Republic

Brodska H.,ULBLD 1. LF UK a VFN | Kazda A.,ULBLD 1. LF UK a VFN | Valenta J.,Klinika Anesteziologie
Klinicka Biochemie a Metabolismus | Year: 2013

The second part of the communication on the issue of trace elements in critically ill patients is devoted to copper and selenium. After a short decrease in trauma, as well as in systemic inflammation, plasmatic level of copper increases. The copper is bound on ceruloplasmin, which is an acute phase reactant. Copper deficiency requiring substitution occurs in extensive burns, losses from the gastrointestinal tract or in negative balance during haemodialysis. Copper is necessary for the utilization of iron in the formation of haemoglobin and transferrin and therefore the insufficient level results to hypochromic anaemia. The authors present the recommended doses for copper supplementation in the aforementioned losses. Selenium possesses a number of functions important for the surviving of critical illness, including protection from the organic peroxides, the conversion of thyroxine to active triiodothyronine, improvement in response to glucocorticoids, glycaemic control, inhibition of adhesion molecules and the effect on the function of T-lymphocytes. The level of selenium is reduced in systemic inflammation and it falls progressively depending on the severity of condition (e.g. sepsis). The article reports a number of clinical trials with different regimens of supplementation with high doses of selenium, administered for maximal period of two weeks. The mortality rate has dropped significantly so far in one large clinical trial only. Some other trial have reported positive results in some outcomes: SOFA score improvement in patients with multiple organ dysfunctions, elevation of previously low cholesterol, praealbumin and glutathione peroxidase levels, and reduction in C-reactive protein values. The optimal therapeutic doses are discussed in detail. The toxic effects of copper and selenium overdose, which can cause a critical condition per se, are mentioned. Source

Kazda A.,ULBLD 1. LF UK a VFN | Brodska H.,ULBLD 1. LF UK a VFN
Klinicka Biochemie a Metabolismus | Year: 2013

The problems of trace elements (TE) metabolism and of their supplementation in critically ill patients are different from metabolism and optimal daily intake under physiological conditions or during less dangerous diseases. Critically ill patients may to lose unmeasurable amount of these elements by gastric suction, by drain or fistula content, by bleeding or blood sampling. On the other side they receive unmeasurable amounts of TE thanks to contamination of infusions, solutions of parenteral nutrition or through the transfusions or supplementation of albumin. TE have the key significance for the alleviation of the oxidative stress. With regard to critical states most often are discussed zinc, iron, copper and selenium. Part 1. of our paper is dedicated to zinc and iron. Thanks to interleukins, in reaction to trauma and infection these TE are re-distributed from plasma into tissues. This is comprehended as efforts to eliminate from the circulation elements supporting the microbial growth. With respect to the significance of zinc for the synthesis of proteins and of iron for the erythropoiesis more clinical trials were realized with supplementation of these TE in higher amounts as generally recommended. Nevertheless till today the experimental, as well as clinical, studies and reviews are often finished with warning before high dosing in critical states. In the paper are also discussed the complications of abundant intake of both TE. The toxic effects of zinc and iron overdose, which can cause a critical condition per se, are mentioned. Source

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