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Belgium

Reynier P.-A.,Aix - Marseille University | Servais F.,ULB
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

This paper presents the Monotone-Pruning algorithm (MP) for computing the minimal coverability set of Petri nets. The original Karp and Miller algorithm (K&M) unfolds the reachability graph of a Petri net and uses acceleration on branches to ensure termination. The MP algorithm improves the K&M algorithm by adding pruning between branches of the K&M tree. This idea was first introduced in the Minimal Coverability Tree algorithm (MCT), however it was recently shown to be incomplete. The MP algorithm can be viewed as the MCT algorithm with a slightly more aggressive pruning strategy which ensures completeness. Experimental results show that this algorithm is a strong improvement over the K&M algorithm. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Lhernould M.S.,ULB
Microsystem Technologies | Year: 2013

Microneedles as a means of transdermal drug delivery is a very promising technology that has been under development in recent years. Much research has been undertaken on the subject, but the quantity of available information makes determining crucial factors for their optimization difficult. This review article gathers available information concerning the mechanics and fluidics of microneedles and provides the reader with important summarized information to take into consideration when designing microneedles systems intended for transdermal drug delivery. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source


The Belgian law legalizing euthanasia under strict conditions came into effect September 22, 2002. Any physician performing euthanasia has to complete a registration document and to send it within four days to a federal commission whose mission is to verify that the legal conditions were fulfilled. From September 22, 2002 to December 31, 2013, 8.767 documents have been registered and analyzed by this commission. They are described in six reports referred to Parliament. The present paper analyzes the work of this commission and answers the criticisms concerning its quality and its efficiency. The allegations that clandestine euthanasia's escaping any control are performed are also discussed. In conclusion, it appears that the legal obligations concerning the practice of euthanasia in Belgium are fully effective. © A.M.U.B. 2015. Source


Grasner J.T.,University of Kiel | Herlitz J.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Koster R.W.,Afd. Cardiologie | Rosell-Ortiz F.,Empresa Publica de Emergencias | And 2 more authors.
Resuscitation | Year: 2011

Background: Knowledge about the epidemiology of cardiac arrest in Europe is inadequate. Aim: To describe the first attempt to build up a Common European Registry of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, called EuReCa. Methods: After approaching key persons in participating countries of the European Resuscitation Council, five countries or areas within countries (Belgium, Germany, Andalusia, North Holland, Sweden) agreed to participate. A standardized questionnaire including 28 items, that identified various aspects of resuscitation, was developed to explore the nature of the regional/national registries. This comprises inclusion criteria, data sources, and core data, as well as technical details of the structure of the databases. Results: The participating registers represent a population of 35 million inhabitants in Europe. During 2008, 12,446 cardiac arrests were recorded. The structure as well as the level of complexity varied markedly between the 5 regional/national registries. The incidence of attempted resuscitation ranged between registers from 17 to 53 per 100,000 inhabitants each year whilst the number of patients admitted to hospital alive ranged from 5 to 18 per 100,000 inhabitants each year. Bystander CPR varied 3-fold from 20% to 60%. Conclusion: Five countries agreed to participate in an attempt to build up a common European Registry for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. These regional/national registries show a marked difference in terms of structure and complexity. A marked variation was found between countries in the number of reported resuscitation attempts, the number of patients brought to hospital alive, and the proportion that received bystander CPR. At present, we are unable to explain the reason for the variability but our first findings could be a 'wake-up-call' for building up a high quality registry that could provide answers to this and other key questions in relation to the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Sausse Lhernould M.,ULB | Delchambre A.,ULB
Microsystem Technologies | Year: 2011

Hypodermic injections give the best results in terms of drug administration efficiency, but benefit from a negative image among patients due to the fear of pain linked to needles. Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) has thus been greatly developed in the past ten years in order to be able to by-pass the skin protective layers in a minimally invasive way. With the advent of micro electro mechanical systems, opportunities have appeared, particularly in the area of microneedles. In this paper we present a new design of hollow polymeric microneedles aimed at being used for TDD by allowing injection of a liquid in the non-innerve part of the dermis. The design has been studied in order to be able to manufacture these microneedles arrays using techniques that may be applicable to industrial production at low cost. The envisioned microfabrication processes and their stacking are presented which involve injection micromolding and excimer laser ablation. Microneedles are also numerically characterized in terms of mechanics and microfluidics showing that the design also involves interesting features in terms of needles resistance and microfluidic. Due to the innovative double-molding technique, the micro-needles are indeed emptied leaving a cavity. An outlet channel on the side of the needle allows fluid flowing out of the needles. The characteristics of this outlet channel contribute to flow homogenization when several needles are placed in an array pattern. This microneedle design thus combines interesting characteristics in terms of ease of fabrication at large scale, mechanical resistance and fluid dynamics. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

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