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Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Yoshinaga M.,National Hospital Organization Kagoshima Medical Center | Kucho Y.,National Hospital Organization Kagoshima Medical Center | Sarantuya J.,Ulaanbaatar University | Ninomiya Y.,National Hospital Organization Kagoshima Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology

Background-A school-based electrocardiographic screening program has been developed in Japan. However, few data are available on the genetic characteristics of pediatric patients with long-QT syndrome who were diagnosed by this program. Methods and Results-A total of 117 unrelated probands aged =18 years were the subjects who were referred to our centers for genetic testing. Of these, 69 subjects diagnosed by the program formed the screened group. A total of 48 subjects were included in the clinical group and were diagnosed with long-QT syndrome-related symptoms, familial study, or by chance. Mutations were classified as radical, of high probability of pathogenicity, or of uncertain significance. Two subjects in the clinical group died. Genotypes were identified in 50 (72%) and 23 (48%) of subjects in the screened and clinical groups, respectively. Of the KCNQ1 or KCNH2 mutations, 31 of 33 (94%) in the screened group and 15 of 16 (94%) in the clinical group were radical and of high probability of pathogenicity. Prevalence of symptoms before (9/69 versus 31/48; P<0.0001) and after (12/69 versus 17/48; P=0.03) diagnosis was significantly lower in the screened group when compared with that in the clinical group although the QTc values, family history of long-QT syndrome, sudden death, and follow-up periods were not different between the groups. Conclusions-These data suggest that the screening program may be effective for early diagnosis of long-QT syndrome that may allow intervention before symptoms. In addition, screened patients should have follow-up equivalent to clinically identified patients. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Cho C.H.,Korea University | Chulten B.,Ulaanbaatar University | Lee C.K.,Korea University | Nam M.H.,Korea University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology

Background: Various kinds of commercial molecular systems have been developed for fast and more accurate detection of respiratory viruses. Anyplex™ II RV16 [RV16] was designed for simultaneous detection of 16 respiratory viruses using multiplex PCR coupled with TOCE™ technology. Objectives: To compare the performance of RV16 with those of culture and Seeplex® RV15 ACE [RV15] by determining their sensitivity and specificity. Study design: Seven hundred and thirty respiratory samples were tested by modified shell vial culture method, RV16, and RV15. For molecular tests, automated nucleic acid extraction and liquid handling system using MICROLAB Nimbus IVD (Hamilton, USA) was adopted to maximize the workflow and accuracy. Performance of each assay was determined against a composite reference standard. Results: Two hundred and one samples (28%) out of 730 samples were positive by culture, while additional 281 (39%) were positive by RV16 or RV15. Sensitivities of RV16, RV15, and culture for virus tested were as follows: 100/93/63% for influenza A, 90/80/69% for influenza B, 98/94/63% for RSV, 98/52/23% for adenovirus, and 100/75/46% for PIV. For viruses not covered by culture, sensitivities of RV16 and RV15 were as follows: 99/81% for rhinovirus, 92/100% for coronavirus OC43, 100/56% for coronavirus 229E/NL63, 92/88% for metapneumovirus, 100/62% for bocavirus, and 91/91% for enterovirus. Overall, the specificities of culture, RV16, and RV15 (Seegene) were 100/99.9/99.9%. Conclusions: RV16 assay was superior to culture method and RV15 and will be a promising tool for patient management and public health epidemiology. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Nandintsetseg B.,Ulaanbaatar University | Shinoda M.,Nagoya University
Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences

Aeolian processes in temperate grasslands are unique in that the plant growth-decay cycle, soil moisture/snowpack dynamics, and induced grazing interactively affect seasonal and interannual variations of dust emission. This study uses process-based ecosystem model DAYCENT and unique saltation flux measurements to (1) identify primary land surface factors that control dust emission with soil moisture and vegetation components (live grasses, standing dead grasses, and litter) in a Mongolian grassland and (2) test the dead-leaf hypothesis proposed by previous observational studies that correlates plant biomass in summer and dust events the following spring. In general, the DAYCENT model realistically simulates seasonal and interannual variations of the vegetation components and soil moisture that were captured by field observations during 2003-2010. Then, the land surface components are correlated with measured daily saltation flux in the springs of 2008-2009 and the frequency of monthly dusty days during March-June 2002-2010. Results show that dust emission had a similar amplitude of significant correlation with wind speed and a combination of all land surface components, which demonstrates a memory of the preceding year. The memory analysis reveals that vegetation and soil moisture anomalies during spring dust emission are significantly autocorrelated with the preceding year's (autumn) corresponding anomalies, which were controlled by rainfall during a given summer. Most importantly, of the vegetation components, the standing dead grasses had the strongest memory and simultaneous correlation with spring dust emission, suggesting the validity of the dead-leaf hypothesis. ©2015. American Geophysical Union. Source

Price R.,Intermountain Healthcare | Sergelen O.,Ulaanbaatar University | Unursaikhan C.,Etugen Institute
World Journal of Surgery

The W. C. Swanson Family Foundation selected Mongolia to help improve access to affordable quality surgical and medical care in 2000. Over the last 12 years of partnering with the Health Sciences University of Mongolia, three major concepts have been identified that have promoted sustainable progress in expanding and improving surgical care throughout the healthcare system - including urban and rural areas. Understanding and targeting the needs identified by the Mongolian surgical community has cultivated a critical working environment that has had a profound effect on expanding surgical care in Mongolia. Integrating modern surgical care training with basic emergency and essential surgical and medical initiatives created a trusting foundation providing many unforeseen educational opportunities. Lastly, the educational model introduced, including long-term capacity-building programs, has helped enable the local Mongolian surgeons, nurses, biotechnicians, administrators, and educators to continue pioneering independent efforts to further expand modern surgical care in Mongolia. © 2012 Société Internationale de Chirurgie. Source

Shimabukuro M.,Tokushima University | Hirata Y.,Tokushima University | Hirata Y.,University of Tokyo | Tabata M.,Sakakibara Heart Institute | And 9 more authors.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

OBJECTIVE - : The impact of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) over abdominal or overall adiposity on coronary artery disease (CAD) is currently unknown. We compared the association among EAT volume (EATV), cytokine/adipocytokine profiles in EAT and subcutaneous fat, and atherogenic CAD. APPROACH AND RESULTS - : Paired samples were obtained from EAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue during elective cardiac surgery for CAD (n=50) or non-CAD (n=50). EATV was the sum of cross-sectional EAT areas, and visceral and subcutaneous fat areas were determined at the umbilicus level on computed tomography scans. CD68, CD11c, and CD206 cells were counted using immunohistochemical staining. Cytokine/adipocytokine expression was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate analysis indicated that male sex, age, diabetes mellitus, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and EATV index (EATV/body surface area, cm/m) were significant CAD predictors (corrected R=0.401; P<0.001); visceral fat area, hypertension, smoking, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (140 mg/dL [3.63 mmol/L]) or statin use were not predictors. The EATV index positively correlated with the CD68 and CD11c cell numbers and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3), interleukin-1β, and interleukin-1R expression; and negatively correlated with adiponectin expression in EAT. A multivariate analysis model, including CD68 cells and interleukin-1β, and adiponectin expression in EAT strongly predicted CAD (corrected R=0.756; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS - : EATV and macrophage and cytokine/adipocytokine signals in EAT strongly correlated with CAD. Our findings suggest that EATV and adipocytokine imbalance are strongly linked to human coronary atherosclerosis. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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