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Northbrook, IL, United States

Traditionally fire performance properties of externally located deck boards have been characterized by their flame spread index (FSI) as determined by UL 723/ASTM E 84. In this test a nominal 0.6 m wide by 7.3 m long array of deck boards is exposed to an approximately 90 kW ignition source fire for 10 min in the Steiner Tunnel. More recently the University of California Forest Products Laboratory developed a new fire test protocol based the principles of oxygen consumption calorimetry, California SFM 12-7A-4, Part A: Under-Deck Flame Test. This protocol addresses the potential ignition of a deck from underneath as may occur during a wildfire. In this protocol a nominal 0.44 square meter deck-system of deck boards mechanically fastened to wood joists is subjected to an 80 kW ignition source fire for 3 min. For this study the fire performance characteristics of more than thirty-five deck board types were evaluated by the above two methods and by a smaller-scale material-based test, ASTM E 1354 cone calorimeter. Deck boards were selected to represent a range of materials (untreated wood, lignocellulose-polymer composite), structures (solid, voided, microcellular foam), and cross-sectional profiles (width, thickness, presence of hidden fastener system longitudinal edge grooves). The results from this study were used to: 1. Develop correlations for deck boards between the material-based cone calorimeter tests and system-based under-deck tests. 2. Develop correlations for deck boards between the small-scale cone calorimeter tests and large-scale Steiner Tunnel tests. 3. Estimate the significance of ASTM D 2898 Method A accelerated weathering on fire performance. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

ISPCE 2015 - IEEE Symposium on Product Compliance Engineering, Proceedings | Year: 2015

This paper discusses the interoperability between the computer USB port and handheld devices including power banks, cell phones and tablets. According to USB power delivery standard, a USB2.0 port can supply a maximum current of 0.5A at 5V [1] and a USB3.0 port can supply a maximum current of 0.9A at 5V [2], but the test results indicate that some of the handheld devices can draw 2.5A or more current through their USB ports depending on the design. (There are other requirements and standards specifically addressing USB product safety, but this paper focuses on interoperability related to USB power delivery standards.) Some consumers have reported damages to their computers when charging power banks through the computer USB port. And therefore it is beneficial to investigate if overloading is an issue. This paper provides an overview of the computer USB port power management and handheld device power management. This paper also proposes a solution based on the test results and circuit analysis. © 2015 IEEE. Source

Butler E.,UL LLC
2015 IEEE 1st International Conference on Direct Current Microgrids, ICDCM 2015 | Year: 2015

Solar energy is experiencing significant growth that is expected to continue. The forecast is that solar will make up 25% of all new distributed generation capacity growth through 2023. As solar installations continue to increase, UL will have an opportunity to partner with other industry stakeholders to develop new standards and codes that will be instrumental in developing new technologies. We believe that our work to improve solar product efficiency and safety will remain an important part of emerging solar technologies for years to come and will help bring solar energy into new markets. © 2015 IEEE. Source

There has been a steady change in the residential fire environment over the past several decades. These changes include larger homes, different home geometries, increased synthetic fuel loads, and changing construction materials. Several experiments were conducted to compare the impact of changing fuel loads in residential houses. These experiments show living room fires have flashover times of less than 5 min when they used to be on the order of 30 min. Other experiments demonstrate the failure time of wall linings, windows and interior doors have decreased over time which also impact fire growth and firefighter tactics. Each of these changes alone may not be significant but the all-encompassing effect of these components on residential fire behavior has changed the incidents that the fire service is responding to. This analysis examines this change in fire dynamics and the impact on firefighter response times and operational timeframes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

This paper describes experimental investigations on fire service ventilation practices in modern house geometries. Two houses were constructed inside a large fire facility. The first of two houses constructed was a one-story, 111.5 m2, 3 bedroom, 1 bathroom house with 8 total rooms. The second house was a two-story 297.3 m2, 4 bedroom, 2.5 bathroom house with 12 total rooms. The second house featured a modern open floor plan, two-story great room and open foyer. Fifteen experiments were conducted varying the ventilation locations and the number of ventilation openings. Ventilation scenarios included ventilating the front door only, opening the front door and a window near and remote from the seat of the fire, opening a window only and ventilating a higher opening in the two-story house. One scenario in each house was conducted in triplicate to examine repeatability. The results of these experiments examine potential occupant tenability and provide knowledge for the fire service for them to examine their horizontal ventilation standard operating procedures and training content. The fire dynamics resulting from ventilation practices such as ventilation near or remote from the seat of the fire and high versus low in relation to the fire are examined. Several other tactical considerations were developed utilizing the data from these experiments to provide specific examples of changes that can be adopted based on a departments current strategies and tactics. Such tactical considerations and a systems approach to fire service tactics should be investigated further. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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