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Constantino C.,Atkins Boreas | Gardner M.,Atkins Boreas | Comber S.D.W.,University of Plymouth | Scrimshaw M.D.,Brunel University | Ellor B.,UKWIR
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2015

Tightening quality standards for European waters has seen a move towards enhanced wastewater treatment technologies such as granulated organic carbon treatment and ozonation. Although these technologies are likely to be successful in degrading certain micro-organic contaminants, these may also destroy compounds which would otherwise complex and render metals significantly less toxic. This study examined the impact of enhanced tertiary treatment on the capacity of organic compounds within sewage effluents to complex copper and zinc. The data show that granulated organic carbon treatment removes a dissolved organic carbon (DOC) fraction that is unimportant to complexation such that no detrimental impact on complexation or metal bioavailability is likely to occur from this treatment type. High concentrations of ozone (>1mg O3/mg DOC) are, however, likely to impact the complexation capacity for copper although this is unlikely to be important at the concentrations of copper typically found in effluent discharges or in rivers. Ozone treatment did not affect zinc complexation capacity. The complexation profiles of the sewage effluents show these to contain a category of non-humic ligand that appears unaffected by tertiary treatment and which displays a high affinity for zinc, suggesting these may substantially reduce the bioavailability of zinc in effluent discharges. The implication is that traditional metal bioavailability assessment approaches such as the biotic ligand model may overestimate zinc bioavailability in sewage effluents and effluent-impacted waters. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Jones V.,Aztec | Gardner M.,Aztec | Ellor B.,UKWIR
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Concentrations of trace substances in sewage sludge have been measured in a survey of 28 wastewater treatment works (WwTWs) in the UK carried out over a period of 12. months. Approximately 250 samples were analysed for more than 40 trace contaminants, including trace metals, pharmaceuticals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 'emerging' and regulated organic pollutants. All substances investigated were found to be present in at least some of the sludges sampled. Concentrations were relatively homogenous across all the WwTWs, irrespective of the treatment process, influent and effluent concentrations, and the location of the sludge sampling point within each works. Analysis of the results against existing regulatory and proposed thresholds suggested that levels are mostly below the limits set in the Sewage Sludge Directive, and proposed new limits for sludge used in agriculture. Predicted soil concentrations after application of sewage sludge to land were below the predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for all determinands. Predicted concentrations of pharmaceuticals in soil were also below thresholds deemed to indicate negligible environmental risk. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Brandt M.,Black and Veatch Ltd | Middleton R.,Black and Veatch Ltd | Wheale G.,UKWIR | Schulting F.,GWRC
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2011

After manpower, energy is the highest operating cost item for most water and wastewater companies. Over the last decade, energy consumption by the sector has increased considerably as a consequence of the implementation of new technologies to meet new potable water and effluent treatment quality standards. The price of energy has also increased substantially in the same period. These increases will be compounded by the need to meet future changes to regulations and standards that will require additional energy intensive processes to achieve more exacting requirements. High energy consumption will affect the water industry world wide and is inextricably linked to the issue of Climate Change. This international research project has focused on identifying current energy efficient best practices and technologies in the efficient design and operation of water industry assets for the whole water cycle from abstraction to discharge, including water treatment and distribution, wastewater conveyance and treatment; water reuse; sludge treatment and disposal and water conservation. Opportunities have also been identified for hydraulic energy recovery from turbines and generation from waste and sludge through CHP technology. The study output is a Compendium of global best practices covering the water cycle matrix and includes variations between regions and continents, large urban and small rural systems and complex high and simple low technical solutions. International case studies are used to illustrate best practices. On behalf of Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC) partners world-wide as represented by four Continental Coordinators in the US, Europe, Singapore and Australasia, and South Africa, the project was managed by UK Water Industry Research (UKWIR). This presentation will give the background to the project and use case studies to illustrate the study findings and future opportunities to help deliver both incremental improvements in energy efficiency through optimisation of existing assets and operations and more substantial improvements in energy efficiency from the adoption of novel but proven technologies. © IWA Publishing 2011. Source

Frijns J.,KWR Watercycle Research Institute | Middleton R.,Black and Veatch Corporation | Uijterlinde C.,STOWA | Wheale G.,UKWIR
Journal of Water and Climate Change | Year: 2012

Energy costs and climate change challenges the water industry to improve their energy efficiency. The number of examples of energy measures in water production and treatment is growing rapidly. In this paper, best practices of energy efficiency from the European water industry are presented with the objective of learning from each other. The best practices are collected within the framework of the Global Water Research Coalition's attempt to devise a global compendium 'Best practices in the energy efficient design and operation of water industry assets'. The case studies in the compendium show significant energy savings in all parts of the water cycle. Examples with potential include the improved operational set up of pumping design, on line aeration control, and energyefficient bubble aerators and sludge belt thickeners. Next to optimising energy efficiency across the water cycle, there are also opportunities for energy generation. Promising practices include biogas production from sludge (co)digestion and hydraulic energy generation from micro-turbines. © IWA Publishing 2012. Source

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