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Eckstein H.-H.,TU Munich | Reiff T.,University of Heidelberg | Ringleb P.,University of Heidelberg | Jansen O.,UKSH Campus Kiel | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery | Year: 2016

Background: Because of recent advances in best medical treatment (BMT), it is currently unclear whether any additional surgical or endovascular interventions confer additional benefit, in terms of preventing late ipsilateral carotid territory ischemic stroke in asymptomatic patients with significant carotid stenoses. The aim was to compare the stroke-preventive effects of BMT alone, with that of BMT in combination with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or carotid artery stenting (CAS) in patients with high grade asymptomatic extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Methods: SPACE-2 was planned as a three-armed, randomized controlled trial (BMT alone vs. CEA plus BMT vs. CAS plus BMT, ISRCTN 78592017). However, because of slow patient recruitment, the three-arm study design was amended (July 2013) to become two parallel randomized studies (BMT alone vs. CEA plus BMT, and BMT alone vs. CAS plus BMT). Results: The change in study design did not lead to any significant increase in patient recruitment, and trial recruitment ceased after recruiting 513 patients over a 5 year period (CEA vs. BMT (n = 203); CAS vs. BMT (n = 197), and BMT alone (n = 113)). The 30 day rate of death/stroke was 1.97% for patients undergoing CEA, and 2.54% for patients undergoing CAS. No strokes or deaths occurred in the first 30 days after randomization in patients randomized to BMT. There were several potential reasons for the low recruitment rates into SPACE-2, including the ability for referring doctors to refer their patients directly for CEA or CAS outwith the trial, an inability to convince patients (who had come "mentally prepared" that an intervention was necessary) to accept BMT, and other economic constraints. Conclusions: Because of slow recruitment rates, SPACE-2 had to be stopped after randomizing only 513 patients. The German Research Foundation will provide continued funding to enable follow up of all recruited patients, and it is also planned to include these data in any future meta-analysis prepared by the Carotid Stenosis Trialists Collaboration. © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery.

Helm O.,Institute for Experimental Medicine | Held-Feindt J.,UKSH Campus Kiel | Schafer H.,Laboratory of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Sebens S.,Institute for Experimental Medicine
OncoImmunology | Year: 2014

We recently identified tumor-associated macrophages from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma sharing pro- and anti-inflammatory characteristics. Already in residence in the setting of chronic pancreatitis, local macrophages confer malignancy-associated features to premalignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by both promoting and inhibiting inflammation, either of which can foster malignant conversion. Our findings support the concept that contrasting modes of inflammation can promote tumorigenesis. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Burger R.,UKSH Campus Kiel
Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy | Year: 2013

Almost 3 decades have passed since the discovery and cloning of IL-6, and a tremendous amount of work has contributed to the current knowledge of the biological functions of this cytokine, its receptor, and the signaling pathways that are activated. The understanding of the role of IL-6 in human disease has led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that block the biological functions of IL-6. In clinical studies, IL-6 and IL-6 receptor antibodies have proven efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and Castleman's disease, conditions that are known to be driven by IL-6. The focus of this overview is the role of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of hematological malignancies. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Claassen H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Claassen H.,University of Kiel | Steffen R.,University of Kiel | Hassenpflug J.,UKSH Campus Kiel | And 4 more authors.
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2010

Clinical observations have suggested a relationship between osteoarthritis and a changed sex-hormone metabolism, especially in menopausal women. This study analyzes the effect of 17β-estradiol on expression of matrix metalloproteinases-1, -3, -13 (MMP-1, -3, -13) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-1, -2 (TIMP-1, -2) in articular chondrocytes. An imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) specialized on degradation of articular cartilage matrix over the respective inhibitors of these enzymes (TIMPs) that leads to matrix destruction was postulated in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Primary human articular chondrocytes from patients of both genders were cultured in alginate beads at 5% O2 to which 10 -11M-10-5M 17β-estradiol had been added and analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Since articular chondrocytes in vivo are adapted to a low oxygen tension, culture was performed at 5% O2. Immunohistochemical staining in articular cartilage tissue from patients and immunocytochemical staining in articular chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads was positive for type II collagen, estrogen receptor α, MMP-1, and -13. It was negative for type I collagen, MMP-3, TIMP-1 and -2. Using real-time RT-PCR, it was demonstrated that physiological and supraphysiological doses of 17β-estradiol suppress mRNA levels of MMP-3 and -13 significantly in articular chondrocytes of female patients. A significant suppressing effect was also seen in MMP-1 mRNA after a high dose of 10-5M 17β-estradiol. Furthermore, high doses of this hormone led to tendentially lower TIMP-1 levels whereas the TIMP-2 mRNA level was not influenced. In male patients, only incubations with high doses (10-5M) of 17β-estradiol were followed by a tendency to suppressed MMP-1 and TIMP-1 levels while TIMP-2 mRNA level was decreased significantly. There was no effect on MMP-13 expression of cells from male patients. Taken together, application of 17β-estradiol in physiological doses will improve the imbalance between the amounts of MMPs and TIMPs in articular chondrocytes from female patients. Downregulation of TIMP-2 by 17β-estradiol in male patients would not be articular cartilage protective. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Krause-Titz U.R.,UKSH Campus Kiel | Warneke N.,University of Munster | Freitag-Wolf S.,Institute of Medical Informatics and Statistics | Barth H.,UKSH Campus Kiel | Mehdorn H.M.,UKSH Campus Kiel
Neurosurgical Review | Year: 2016

After performing a decompressive craniectomy, a cranioplastic surgery is usually warranted. The complications of this reconstructive procedure may differ from the initial operation. The authors of this study report on their experience to define patient-specific and procedural risk factors for possible complications following cranioplasty influencing the outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS)), mobility, shunt dependency, and seizures. A retrospective analysis of 263 patients of all ages and both sexes who had undergone cranioplasty after craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (including chronic subdural hematoma), subarachnoidal hemorrhage (including intracerebral hemorrhage), ischemic stroke, and tumor surgery in one single center in 12 years from January 2000 to March 2012 has been carried out. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors (age, gender, used cranioplasty material, initial diagnosis, clipped or coil-embolized subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) patients, time interval, complications especially hydrocephalus and seizures, mobility) upon the prognosis described as a dichotomized Glasgow Outcome Scale. Two hundred forty-eight patients met the study criteria. The overall complication rate after cranioplastic surgery was 18.5 % (46 patients). Complications included: surgical site infection, epidural hematoma, hydrocephalus with or without former SAH, and new-onset seizures. Logistic regression analysis identified significant correlation between a low GOS (2 or 3) and postoperative seizures (OR 2.37, CI 1.35–4.18, p < 0.05), shunt-depending hydrocephalus (OR 5.83, CI 3.06–11.11, p < 0.05), and age between 51 and 70 years (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.09–5.29, p = 0.029). However, gender, time interval between craniectomy and cranioplasty, initial diagnosis, and used cranioplasty material had no significant influence on post-cranioplasty complications as surgical site infections, hematoma, wound healing disturbance, seizures, or hydrocephalus. Evaluation of treatment modality in aneurysmal SAH clip vs. coil showed no significant relation to postoperative complications either. Complications after cranioplastic surgery are a common problem, as prognostic factors could identify a shunt-depending hydrocephalus and epilepsia to develop a major deficit after cranioplastic surgery (GOS 2 or 3). We detected a significant extra risk of people between the age of 51 and 70 years to end up in GOS level 2 or 3. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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