Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration

Kharkiv, Ukraine

Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration

Kharkiv, Ukraine
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Krupitsky A.V.,RAS Severtsov Institute of Ecology | Pljushtch I.G.,Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology | Skrylnik Y.Ye.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration
Zootaxa | Year: 2017

In the present paper we refine the systematic position of an unclear lycaenine taxon povolnyi Howarth & Povolny, 1976 previously known only from the holotype male. Based on the appearance and morphology of the male genitalia we recognize it as a subspecies of Athamanthia balucha (Howarth & Povolny 1976)-A. b. povolnyi (Howarth & Povolny, 1976), comb. nov. Morphology of the subspecies is redescribed, female is described and illustrated for the first time, and distribution data are added taking into consideration recent findings in Bamyan province of Afghanistan. Taxon athamantides Eckweiler & ten Hagen, 2001 from Central and Southeast Iran is also treated as a subspecies of A. balucha-A. b. athamantides (Eckweiler & ten Hagen, 2001), comb. nov.-based on the similarity of the male genitalia and the wing pattern with A. balucha. Copyright © 2017 Magnolia Press.

Stenlid J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Elfstrand M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Cleary M.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ihrmark K.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2017

In Europe, an epidemic is currently occurring on common ash (Fraxinus excelsior). The disease, commonly known as ash dieback, is the result of a biological invasion by the causal Helotialean fungus Hymenoscyphus fraxineus Baral, Queloz, Hosoya. This study describes the genomes of H. fraxineus and H. albidus, a native non-pathogenic sister species to H. fraxineus. The Hymenoscyphus sp. genomes harbour similar and extensive Cell Wall Active Enzyme (CAZYme) repertoires, they appear better at degrading cellulose than e.g. Botrytis but has similar pectin-degrading capacities. In planta, the pathogenic H. fraxineus showed higher gene expression than H. albidus of two of the pectin degrading enzymes, consistent with a higher disruption of primary cell walls and possibly leading to a stronger host reaction. Based on SignalP and Phobious annotations, we identified 2160 and 2006 secreted genes in H. fraxineus and H. albidus, respectively. This is almost twice as many as for most other Helotialean fungi. Two small secreted proteins were transcribed in H. fraxineus, one being a cerato-platinin like protein with a putative role in pathogenicity. No small secreted proteins were detected in the H. albidus transcriptome. It has been suggested that fungal metallopeptidases, can target and degrade non-structural defense proteins in planta. We found that the Hymenoscyphus genomes encode more metallopeptidases than other Helotialean species. In conclusion, the prolonged saprotrophic growth phase on shed ash leaves of H. fraxineus and H. albidus has probably shaped the genomes. Both genomes are highly similar and have CAZYme profiles similar to saprotrophic fungi. The relatively small differences between the two Hymenoscyphus spp. in gene expression are likely indicative of their differential interaction patterns with the host tree F. excelsior. © Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.

Meshkova V.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Kukina O.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Zinchenko O.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Davydenko K.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2017

Black sawfly (Tomostethus nigritus), the foliage browsing pest of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) after several years of depression was registered in forest stands, forest shelter belts and urban ornamental stands of the East Ukraine. The aim of this research was to reveal the peculiarities of ash defoliation by black sawfly during three years of outbreak and to recognize the changes in health condition of defoliated trees. Research was carried out for 2013–2015 in Molodezhny park of Kharkiv (50°00' N; 36°25' E) (Ukraine, Forest-steppe natural zone) in two groups of common ash trees (forest belt and compact stand). For each labeled tree, defoliation of the whole crown and separately of upper, middle and lower layers, outer and inner parts of crown was assessed in June of 2013, 2014 and 2015, and additionally in July 2015. Health condition of each labeled tree was assessed in June 2013 and July 2015. Defoliation of common ash trees did not significantly differ in 2013 and 2014. It almost twice increased in 2015 and in average exceeded 90%. Dependence of defoliation from crown layer, crown part (outer or inner) or tree diameter was not proved statistically, but correlation analysis shows the better health condition of larger trees. The fast recovery of ash crowns after severe damage by black sawfly in 2015 can be explained by favorable weather conditions. Analysis of ash trees distribution by categories of health condition show the improvement of their health after three years of foliage damage by ash sawfly, but forest stand continues to be weakened. Considerable parts of the trees, which belonged to the 2nd, 3rd and 4th categories of health condition in 2013, changed it by one-three grades. Totally 50% of trees did not change the category of health condition, 35.3% of trees improved it and 14.7% worsened it. © Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry.

Hlasny T.,Slovakian Forest Research Institute | Hlasny T.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Trombik J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Holusa J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

The gypsy moth is the most important defoliator of broadleaved forests in the Northern Hemisphere. We explored the patterns in the moth’s long-term dynamics and produced outbreak forecasts for seven countries located in central to southeastern Europe and extending into the Carpathian Mountains. We investigated how the outbreak periods and trends in the size of outbreak areas differ among the countries, the extent to which pest dynamics are synchronized, and how the observed patterns can be used to forecast outbreaks. We used long-term time series on outbreaks from about 1947 to 2013. The outbreak period ranged from 13 years in the northwest to 8 years in the southeast of the region; the periods were statistically significant in six of the seven countries (α = 0.05). Two distinct patterns in outbreak size were observed, i.e. while outbreak areas in the northwest were increasing, exceptionally large outbreaks occasionally occurred in the southeastern part of the region. Outbreak forecasts based on combined use of the Fourier Transform and ARFIMA approaches showed that outbreak predictability differs among the countries. An increase in outbreak areas, the control of which would require increased resources, was forecasted mainly in the central part of the region. Although the forecasts can support the forest management, there are limits to their use because of the complex relationships between the pest and the environment, which were not captured by our empirical forecasting models. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

Tenow O.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Nilssen A.C.,University of Tromsø | Bylund H.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Pettersson R.,Uppsala University | And 18 more authors.
Journal of Animal Ecology | Year: 2013

We show that the population ecology of the 9- to 10-year cyclic, broadleaf-defoliating winter moth (Operophtera brumata) and other early-season geometrids cannot be fully understood on a local scale unless population behaviour is known on a European scale. Qualitative and quantitative data on O. brumata outbreaks were obtained from published sources and previously unpublished material provided by authors of this article. Data cover six decades from the 1950s to the first decade of twenty-first century and most European countries, giving new information fundamental for the understanding of the population ecology of O. brumata. Analyses on epicentral, regional and continental scales show that in each decade, a wave of O. brumata outbreaks travelled across Europe. On average, the waves moved unidirectionally ESE-WNW, that is, toward the Scandes and the Atlantic. When one wave reached the Atlantic coast after 9-10 years, the next one started in East Europe to travel the same c. 3000 km distance. The average wave speed and wavelength was 330 km year-1 and 3135 km, respectively, the high speed being incongruous with sedentary geometrid populations. A mapping of the wave of the 1990s revealed that this wave travelled in a straight E-W direction. It therefore passed the Scandes diagonally first in the north on its way westward. Within the frame of the Scandes, this caused the illusion that the wave moved N-S. In analogy, outbreaks described previously as moving S-N or occurring contemporaneously along the Scandes were probably the result of continental-scale waves meeting the Scandes obliquely from the south or in parallel. In the steppe zone of eastern-most and south-east Europe, outbreaks of the winter moth did not participate in the waves. Here, broadleaved stands are small and widely separated. This makes the zone hostile to short-distance dispersal between O. brumata subpopulations and prevents synchronization within meta-populations. We hypothesize that hostile boundary models, involving reciprocal host-herbivore-enemy reactions at the transition between the steppe and the broadleaved forest zones, offer the best explanation to the origin of outbreak waves. These results have theoretical and practical implications and indicate that multidisciplinary, continentally coordinated studies are essential for an understanding of the spatio-temporal behaviour of cyclic animal populations. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.

Menkis A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ostbrant I.-L.,Swedish Forest Agency Gotland District | Davydenko K.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Bakys R.,Lithuanian University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Mycological Progress | Year: 2016

Scolytus multistriatus Marsham, the smaller European elm bark beetle, is a vector for Dutch elm disease (DED) that in the year 2005 invaded the island of Gotland (Sweden). The island possesses the largest population of elm (mainly Ulmus minor Mill.) in northern Europe. The aim of this study was to monitor flying periods of S. multistriatus during three consecutive years and by using high-throughput sequencing to assess communities of vectored fungi. Sampling of the beetles was carried out at two different sites in Gotland in 2012, 2013, and 2014. In total, 50 pheromone traps were placed at each site and checked weekly during June-August each year. From all sites and years, 177 beetles were trapped. Among these, 6.2 % were trapped in June, 76.8 % in July, and 16.9 % in August (difference significant at p<0.007). Sequencing of ITS rDNA from the beetles revealed the presence of 1589 fungal taxa, among which virulent DED pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier was the second most common species (9.0 % of all fungal sequences). O. ulmi Buisman, the less virulent DED pathogen, was also detected but only in a single beetle, which was sampled in 2012 (0.04 % of sequences). There were 13.0 % of the beetles infested with O. novo-ulmi in 2012, 4.0 % in 2013, and 27.7 % in 2014. O. novo-ulmi comprised 0.8 % of fungal sequences in 2012, 0.002 % in 2013, and 8.2 % in 2014. The study showed that the proportion of S. multistriatus vectoring O. novo-ulmi has increased in recent years. © 2016, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Koval I.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2013

The influence of climatic factors of the subtropical climate on the growth of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana in 110-year-old stand on the southern slope of the Crimean Mountains of Ukraine was evaluated by comparing earlywood, latewood and total ring indices with monthly temperature and precipitation data for 1973-2011. Two periods (19731992 and 1993-2011) were compared to detect features of the response of latewood, earlywood and total rings to climate change. The following tendency was revealed: increase in the mean annual temperature by 0.3 °C (2.5%), increase in the temperature in April-August by 0.8 °C (4.3%), increase in March temperature by 0,2 °C (4.1%), decrease in winter temperature by 0,4 °C (7.8%) in 1993-2011 in comparison with 1973-1992. Mean annual precipitation increased by 19 mm (1.3%), precipitation in April-August decreased by 46 mm (20%), precipitation in the cold period (from the last November to March) increased by 44 mm (12%). The relative humidity of air reduced by 1% over the year, by 5% in April-August and increased by 5% in winter. Correlation and analysis of pointer years show that summer drought during 1993-2011 limited the radial growth in Crimean pine more than in 1973-1992. The decrease in winter temperature has also led to an decrease in the radial growth of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana in 1993-2011. Latewood layers appeared to be more sensitive to climate than earlywood rings. Assuming that summer water stress will increase, and winter temperature will decrease, we can expect decline in the radial growth of pine next years.

Davydenko K.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Vasaitis R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Stenlid J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Menkis A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Forest Pathology | Year: 2013

In eastern Ukraine, the first symptoms of dieback on common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were observed in 2010, as sparse flushing of leaves, bark necrosis and wood discoloration of shoots. The aim of this study was to assess possible causal agents of the damage by studying fungal communities in both symptomatic and healthy-looking shoots, and leaf petioles. Field sampling was carried out in 2010 in Kharkiv and Sumy regions in eastern Ukraine and included 68 segments of symptomatic shoots, 68 segments of healthy-looking shoots and 240 segments of petioles. DNA isolation from individual segments and direct sequencing of fungal ITS rRNA resulted in 430 fungal sequences representing 29 distinct taxa. Results showed that Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus - the primary causal agent of ash dieback in Europe - was present at low proportion (5.6%) in symptomatic shoots. Other more frequently detected fungi were Epicoccum nigrum, Venturia fraxini, Colletotrichum truncatum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp. and Lophiostoma corticola. In conclusion, the study reports on the first incidence of ash decline in the Ukraine and other possible causal agents of damage which may help to evaluate and forecast the future situation with F. excelsior stands in the region. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Yakovlev R.V.,Tomsk State University | Pljustch I.G.,Ii Schmalhausen Institute Of Zoology | Skrylnik Y.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Pak O.,Donetsk National University | Witt T.J.,Witt Museum
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The annotated list of Cossidae of Afghanistan consists of 44 species in 17 genera from the four subfamilies Catoptinae, Cossinae, Zeuzerinae, and Mehariinae. Three new species are described: Cossulus habibae Yakovlev, Pljustch, Skrylnik & Pak, sp. nov., Semagystia bamiani Yakovlev, Pljustch, Skrylnik & Pak, sp. nov., Phragmacossia bandeamiri Yakovlev, Pljustch, Skrylnik & Pak, sp. nov.; all from Band-e-Amir National Park in Bamian Province. Three species (Dervishiya cadambae (Moore, 1865), Semagystia cossoides (Graeser, 1892), Phragmacossia territa (Staudinger, 1879)) are reported for the first time from Afghanistan. A brief biogeographical analysis of the Cossidae of Afghanistan is given. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press.

Davydenko K.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Vasaitis R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Meshkova V.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Menkis A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the fungal community associated with the red-haired bark beetle (Hylurgus ligniperda Fabricius) in two plantations of Pinus sylvestris L. located in the Kharkiv and Luhansk regions (ca. 250 km apart) in the forest-steppe zone in eastern Ukraine. In each plantation, 48 beetles were collected from butts of living trees and 48 beetles from stems of fallen trees, i.e., a total of 96. Half of the beetles from each site were used for culturing fungi and the other half for direct sequencing the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA). Thirty distinct fungal taxa were identified by culturing and 31 by direct sequencing. When pooled, there were 40 fungal taxa among which Ophiostoma piceae (Münch) Sydow & P. Sydow (10.3%), Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler (9.7%), Ogataea neopini Nagatsuka, S. Saito & Sugiyama (8.0%), Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel (5.1%), Cladosporium sp. Link (5.1%) and Sydowia polyspora (Brefeld & Tavel) E. Müller (4.6%) were the most common. Species of the genus Ophiostoma were the most abundant and included five different taxa O. piceae, O. bicolor R.W. Davidson & D.E. Wells, O. ips (Rumbold) Nannfeldt, O. canum (Münch) Sydow & P. Sydow and O. rectangulosporium Ohtaka, Masuya & Yamaoka, all of which are known to be at most weak pathogens of trees. The plant pathogen Botryotinia fuckeliana and insect pathogens Isaria farinose (Holmskjold) Fries and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin were also detected. Basidiomycetes were rare, among which three wood-decaying fungi Bjerkandera adusta (Willdenow) P. Karsten, Fomitopsis pinicola (Swartz) P. Karsten and Heterobasidion annosum (Fries) Brefeld were detected. In conclusion, in the forest-steppe zone in eastern Ukraine H. ligniperda is a vector of diverse communities of fungi the majority of which, if at all, are only weak pathogens of trees.

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