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Koval I.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration
Baltic Forestry | Year: 2013

The influence of climatic factors of the subtropical climate on the growth of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana in 110-year-old stand on the southern slope of the Crimean Mountains of Ukraine was evaluated by comparing earlywood, latewood and total ring indices with monthly temperature and precipitation data for 1973-2011. Two periods (19731992 and 1993-2011) were compared to detect features of the response of latewood, earlywood and total rings to climate change. The following tendency was revealed: increase in the mean annual temperature by 0.3 °C (2.5%), increase in the temperature in April-August by 0.8 °C (4.3%), increase in March temperature by 0,2 °C (4.1%), decrease in winter temperature by 0,4 °C (7.8%) in 1993-2011 in comparison with 1973-1992. Mean annual precipitation increased by 19 mm (1.3%), precipitation in April-August decreased by 46 mm (20%), precipitation in the cold period (from the last November to March) increased by 44 mm (12%). The relative humidity of air reduced by 1% over the year, by 5% in April-August and increased by 5% in winter. Correlation and analysis of pointer years show that summer drought during 1993-2011 limited the radial growth in Crimean pine more than in 1973-1992. The decrease in winter temperature has also led to an decrease in the radial growth of Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana in 1993-2011. Latewood layers appeared to be more sensitive to climate than earlywood rings. Assuming that summer water stress will increase, and winter temperature will decrease, we can expect decline in the radial growth of pine next years. Source

Menkis A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Ostbrant I.-L.,Swedish Forest Agency Gotland District | Davydenko K.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Bakys R.,Lithuanian University of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Mycological Progress | Year: 2016

Scolytus multistriatus Marsham, the smaller European elm bark beetle, is a vector for Dutch elm disease (DED) that in the year 2005 invaded the island of Gotland (Sweden). The island possesses the largest population of elm (mainly Ulmus minor Mill.) in northern Europe. The aim of this study was to monitor flying periods of S. multistriatus during three consecutive years and by using high-throughput sequencing to assess communities of vectored fungi. Sampling of the beetles was carried out at two different sites in Gotland in 2012, 2013, and 2014. In total, 50 pheromone traps were placed at each site and checked weekly during June-August each year. From all sites and years, 177 beetles were trapped. Among these, 6.2 % were trapped in June, 76.8 % in July, and 16.9 % in August (difference significant at p<0.007). Sequencing of ITS rDNA from the beetles revealed the presence of 1589 fungal taxa, among which virulent DED pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier was the second most common species (9.0 % of all fungal sequences). O. ulmi Buisman, the less virulent DED pathogen, was also detected but only in a single beetle, which was sampled in 2012 (0.04 % of sequences). There were 13.0 % of the beetles infested with O. novo-ulmi in 2012, 4.0 % in 2013, and 27.7 % in 2014. O. novo-ulmi comprised 0.8 % of fungal sequences in 2012, 0.002 % in 2013, and 8.2 % in 2014. The study showed that the proportion of S. multistriatus vectoring O. novo-ulmi has increased in recent years. © 2016, German Mycological Society and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Hlasny T.,Slovakian Forest Research Institute | Hlasny T.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Trombik J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | Holusa J.,Czech University of Life Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2015

The gypsy moth is the most important defoliator of broadleaved forests in the Northern Hemisphere. We explored the patterns in the moth’s long-term dynamics and produced outbreak forecasts for seven countries located in central to southeastern Europe and extending into the Carpathian Mountains. We investigated how the outbreak periods and trends in the size of outbreak areas differ among the countries, the extent to which pest dynamics are synchronized, and how the observed patterns can be used to forecast outbreaks. We used long-term time series on outbreaks from about 1947 to 2013. The outbreak period ranged from 13 years in the northwest to 8 years in the southeast of the region; the periods were statistically significant in six of the seven countries (α = 0.05). Two distinct patterns in outbreak size were observed, i.e. while outbreak areas in the northwest were increasing, exceptionally large outbreaks occasionally occurred in the southeastern part of the region. Outbreak forecasts based on combined use of the Fourier Transform and ARFIMA approaches showed that outbreak predictability differs among the countries. An increase in outbreak areas, the control of which would require increased resources, was forecasted mainly in the central part of the region. Although the forecasts can support the forest management, there are limits to their use because of the complex relationships between the pest and the environment, which were not captured by our empirical forecasting models. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Source

Davydenko K.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Vasaitis R.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Stenlid J.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences | Menkis A.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Forest Pathology | Year: 2013

In eastern Ukraine, the first symptoms of dieback on common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) were observed in 2010, as sparse flushing of leaves, bark necrosis and wood discoloration of shoots. The aim of this study was to assess possible causal agents of the damage by studying fungal communities in both symptomatic and healthy-looking shoots, and leaf petioles. Field sampling was carried out in 2010 in Kharkiv and Sumy regions in eastern Ukraine and included 68 segments of symptomatic shoots, 68 segments of healthy-looking shoots and 240 segments of petioles. DNA isolation from individual segments and direct sequencing of fungal ITS rRNA resulted in 430 fungal sequences representing 29 distinct taxa. Results showed that Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus - the primary causal agent of ash dieback in Europe - was present at low proportion (5.6%) in symptomatic shoots. Other more frequently detected fungi were Epicoccum nigrum, Venturia fraxini, Colletotrichum truncatum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Alternaria sp. and Lophiostoma corticola. In conclusion, the study reports on the first incidence of ash decline in the Ukraine and other possible causal agents of damage which may help to evaluate and forecast the future situation with F. excelsior stands in the region. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Yakovlev R.V.,Tomsk State University | Pljustch I.G.,Ii Schmalhausen Institute Of Zoology | Skrylnik Y.,Ukrainian Research Institute of Forestry and Forest Melioration | Pak O.,Donetsk National University | Witt T.J.,Witt Museum
Zootaxa | Year: 2015

The annotated list of Cossidae of Afghanistan consists of 44 species in 17 genera from the four subfamilies Catoptinae, Cossinae, Zeuzerinae, and Mehariinae. Three new species are described: Cossulus habibae Yakovlev, Pljustch, Skrylnik & Pak, sp. nov., Semagystia bamiani Yakovlev, Pljustch, Skrylnik & Pak, sp. nov., Phragmacossia bandeamiri Yakovlev, Pljustch, Skrylnik & Pak, sp. nov.; all from Band-e-Amir National Park in Bamian Province. Three species (Dervishiya cadambae (Moore, 1865), Semagystia cossoides (Graeser, 1892), Phragmacossia territa (Staudinger, 1879)) are reported for the first time from Afghanistan. A brief biogeographical analysis of the Cossidae of Afghanistan is given. Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press. Source

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