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Abdullah M.,Immunology Unit | Abdul Rahman E.J.,Hospital Kuala Lumpur | Ibrahim H.M.,Hospital Kuala Lumpur | Jamal R.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute
Hematology | Year: 2017

Background and objectives: DNA hypermethylation has been linked to poor treatment outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Genes differentially methylated in the chemoresponsive pre-B-ALL compared to chemoresistant pre-B-ALL cases provide potential prognostic markers. Methods: DNA methylation profiles of five B-ALL childhood patients who achieved morphological complete remission (chemoresponsive) and five B-ALL patients who did not (chemoresistant) after induction treatments as well as four normal controls were compared on 27 000 CpG sites microarray chips. Subsequently, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) on selected hypermethylated genes was conducted on an additional 37 chemoresponsive and 9 chemoresistant B-ALL samples and 2 normal controls. Results: Both methods were found to be highly correlated. Unsupervised principal component analysis showed that the chemotherapy-responsive and -resistant B-ALL patients could be segregated from one another. Selection of segregated genes at high stringency identified two potential genes (CDH11 and ADAMTSL5). MSP analysis on the larger cohort of samples (42 chemoresponsive, 14 chemoresistant B-ALL samples and 6 normal controls) revealed significantly higher rates of hypermethylation in chemoresistant samples for ADAMTSL5 (93 vs. 38%; p = 0.0001) and CDH11 (79% vs. 40%, p < 0.01). All control cases remained unmethylated. Conclusion: Chemoresistant B-ALL patients are associated with increased methylation in ADAMTSL5 and CDH11. These findings need to be validated in a larger group of patients, and the functional biological and prognostic significance of differential methylation needs to be studied further. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Lokamani I.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute | Looi M.-L.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute | Ali S.A.M.,University of Sfax | Dali A.Z.H.M.,University of Sfax | Jamal R.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute
Analytical and Quantitative Cytology and Histology | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To assess the immunoexpression of clusterin (CLU) in the progression of cervical neoplasia. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 127 paraffin sections of cervical tissue consisting of normal cervical tissue, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and adenocarcinoma of the cervix were examined by immunohistochemistry. The findings were evaluated in relation to clinicopathologic factors including grade of differentiation and lymph node involvement. RESULTS: Immunopositivity of CLU was found in the cytoplasm of dysplastic cells, SCCs, and normal epithelium of the endocervical gland. There was negative expression in adenocarcinoma. High expression of CLU was found in CIN 3 compared to CIN 1 and CIN 2. The immunoreactivity of CLU was found in 95% of SCCs. The staining was positive in the upper 2/3 layers of the dysplastic epithelium for CIN 3 and showed a cluster pattern in cervical SCCs. There was no significant correlation between CLU immunoreactivity and lymph node involvement, as well as grade of differentiation. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of CLU in various stages of cervical lesions may serve as a potential marker to distinguish cervical neoplasia with borderline morphology features. © Science Printers and Publishers, Inc.


Law J.W.-F.,Monash University | Ab Mutalib N.-S.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute | Chan K.-G.,University of Malaya | Lee L.-H.,Monash University
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen that can cause listeriosis through the consumption of food contaminated with this pathogen. The ability of L. monocytogenes to survive in extreme conditions and cause food contaminations have become a major concern. Hence, routine microbiological food testing is necessary to prevent food contamination and outbreaks of foodborne illness. This review provides insight into the methods for cultural detection, enumeration, and molecular identification of L. monocytogenes in various food samples. There are a number of enrichment and plating media that can be used for the isolation of L. monocytogenes from food samples. Enrichment media such as buffered Listeria enrichment broth, Fraser broth, and University of Vermont Medium (UVM) Listeria enrichment broth are recommended by regulatory agencies such as Food and Drug Administration-bacteriological and analytical method (FDA-BAM), US Department of Agriculture-Food and Safety (USDA-FSIS), and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Many plating media are available for the isolation of L. monocytogenes, for instance, polymyxin acriflavin lithium-chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol, Oxford, and other chromogenic media. Besides, reference methods like FDA-BAM, ISO 11290 method, and USDA-FSIS method are usually applied for the cultural detection or enumeration of L. monocytogenes. most probable number technique is applied for the enumeration of L. monocytogenes in the case of low level contamination. Molecular methods including polymerase chain reaction, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, real-time/quantitative polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, DNA microarray, and next generation sequencing technology for the detection and identification of L. monocytogenes are discussed in this review. Overall, molecular methods are rapid, sensitive, specific, time- and labor-saving. In future, there are chances for the development of new techniques for the detection and identification of foodborne with improved features. © 2015 Law, Ab Mutalib, Chan and Lee.


PubMed | Monash University, University of Malaya and UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in microbiology | Year: 2015

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen that can cause listeriosis through the consumption of food contaminated with this pathogen. The ability of L. monocytogenes to survive in extreme conditions and cause food contaminations have become a major concern. Hence, routine microbiological food testing is necessary to prevent food contamination and outbreaks of foodborne illness. This review provides insight into the methods for cultural detection, enumeration, and molecular identification of L. monocytogenes in various food samples. There are a number of enrichment and plating media that can be used for the isolation of L. monocytogenes from food samples. Enrichment media such as buffered Listeria enrichment broth, Fraser broth, and University of Vermont Medium (UVM) Listeria enrichment broth are recommended by regulatory agencies such as Food and Drug Administration-bacteriological and analytical method (FDA-BAM), US Department of Agriculture-Food and Safety (USDA-FSIS), and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Many plating media are available for the isolation of L. monocytogenes, for instance, polymyxin acriflavin lithium-chloride ceftazidime aesculin mannitol, Oxford, and other chromogenic media. Besides, reference methods like FDA-BAM, ISO 11290 method, and USDA-FSIS method are usually applied for the cultural detection or enumeration of L. monocytogenes. most probable number technique is applied for the enumeration of L. monocytogenes in the case of low level contamination. Molecular methods including polymerase chain reaction, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, real-time/quantitative polymerase chain reaction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, DNA microarray, and next generation sequencing technology for the detection and identification of L. monocytogenes are discussed in this review. Overall, molecular methods are rapid, sensitive, specific, time- and labor-saving. In future, there are chances for the development of new techniques for the detection and identification of foodborne with improved features.


Zainal Abidin S.,University Putra Malaysia | Tan E.L.,National University of Malaysia | Chan S.-C.,Perdana University | Jaafar A.,University Putra Malaysia | And 10 more authors.
BMC Neurology | Year: 2015

Background: Impulse control disorder (ICD) and behaviours (ICB) represent a group of behavioural disorders that have become increasingly recognised in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients who previously used dopaminergic medications, particularly dopamine agonists and levodopa. It has been suggested that these medications can lead to the development of ICB through the abnormal modulation of dopaminergic transmission and signalling in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. Several studies have reported an association between polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor (DRD) and N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B (GRIN2B) genes with the development of ICB in PD (PD-ICB) patients. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of selected polymorphisms within the DRD and GRIN2B genes with the development of ICB among PD patients using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis. Method: We used high resolution melt (HRM) analysis to genotype 11 polymorphisms in 5 DRD genes [DRD1 (rs4532, rs4867798 and rs265981), DRD2 (ANKK1 rs1800497, rs104894220 and rs144999500), DRD3 (rs3732783 and rs6280), DRD4 (rs1800443), and DRD5 (rs144132215)] and 1 polymorphism in GRIN2B (rs7301328) in PD patients with (cases, n = 52) and without (controls, n = 39) ICB. Cases were obtained from two tertiary movement disorder centres [UKMMC (n = 9) and UMMC (n = 43)]. At both centres, the diagnosis of ICB was made using the QUIP questionnaire. Controls were recruited from PD patients who attended UKMMC and were found to be negative for ICB using the QUIP questionnaire. Results: The HRM analysis showed that 7 of 11 polymorphisms [DRD1 (rs4532, rs4867798, and rs265981), DRD2 (ANKK1 rs1800497), DRD3 (rs3732783 and rs6280), and GRIN2B (rs7301328)] exhibited a clear distinction between wild-type and variant alleles. Variants of DRD2/ANKK1 rs1800497 (OR = 3.77; 95% CI, 1.38-10.30; p = 0.0044), DRD1 rs4867798 (OR = 24.53; 95% CI, 1.68-357.28; p = 0.0054), DRD1 rs4532 (OR = 21.33; 95% CI, 1.97-230.64; p = 0.0024), and GRIN2B rs7301328 (OR = 25.07; 95% CI, 1.30-483.41; p = 0.0097) were found to be associated with an increased risk of developing ICB among PD patients. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in dopamine [DRD1 (rs4532 and rs4867798) and DRD2/ANKK1 rs1800497] and glutamate (GRIN2B rs7301328) receptor genes confer increased risk of ICB development among PD patients. © Zainal Abidin et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | University Putra Malaysia, National University of Malaysia, University of Malaya, UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute and Perdana University
Type: | Journal: BMC neurology | Year: 2015

Impulse control disorder (ICD) and behaviours (ICB) represent a group of behavioural disorders that have become increasingly recognised in Parkinsons disease (PD) patients who previously used dopaminergic medications, particularly dopamine agonists and levodopa. It has been suggested that these medications can lead to the development of ICB through the abnormal modulation of dopaminergic transmission and signalling in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system. Several studies have reported an association between polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor (DRD) and N-methyl-D-aspartate 2B (GRIN2B) genes with the development of ICB in PD (PD-ICB) patients. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the association of selected polymorphisms within the DRD and GRIN2B genes with the development of ICB among PD patients using high resolution melt (HRM) analysis.We used high resolution melt (HRM) analysis to genotype 11 polymorphisms in 5 DRD genes [DRD1 (rs4532, rs4867798 and rs265981), DRD2 (ANKK1 rs1800497, rs104894220 and rs144999500), DRD3 (rs3732783 and rs6280), DRD4 (rs1800443), and DRD5 (rs144132215)] and 1 polymorphism in GRIN2B (rs7301328) in PD patients with (cases, n = 52) and without (controls, n = 39) ICB. Cases were obtained from two tertiary movement disorder centres [UKMMC (n = 9) and UMMC (n = 43)]. At both centres, the diagnosis of ICB was made using the QUIP questionnaire. Controls were recruited from PD patients who attended UKMMC and were found to be negative for ICB using the QUIP questionnaire.The HRM analysis showed that 7 of 11 polymorphisms [DRD1 (rs4532, rs4867798, and rs265981), DRD2 (ANKK1 rs1800497), DRD3 (rs3732783 and rs6280), and GRIN2B (rs7301328)] exhibited a clear distinction between wild-type and variant alleles. Variants of DRD2/ANKK1 rs1800497 (OR = 3.77; 95% CI, 1.38-10.30; p = 0.0044), DRD1 rs4867798 (OR = 24.53; 95% CI, 1.68-357.28; p = 0.0054), DRD1 rs4532 (OR = 21.33; 95% CI, 1.97-230.64; p = 0.0024), and GRIN2B rs7301328 (OR = 25.07; 95% CI, 1.30-483.41; p = 0.0097) were found to be associated with an increased risk of developing ICB among PD patients.Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in dopamine [DRD1 (rs4532 and rs4867798) and DRD2/ANKK1 rs1800497] and glutamate (GRIN2B rs7301328) receptor genes confer increased risk of ICB development among PD patients.


Looi M.-L.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute | Zakaria H.,University Technology of MARA | Osman J.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute | Jamal R.,UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute
Clinical Laboratory | Year: 2012

Background: Saliva has been suggested as an attractive resource for evaluating physiological and pathological conditions in humans. This study aims to evaluate saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling for molecular testing. Methods: We compared the yield, purity, and performance of DNA isolated from blood to that isolated from saliva using the non-invasive collection kit (Oragene® DNA OG500 and OG575 kit). Saliva DNA was extracted by manual purification and QIAamp DNA mini kit. Blood DNA was isolated by salt-precipitation and DNAzol reagent. We also evaluated the quality of saliva DNA by PCR-based analysis. Results: We found that the DNA yield from saliva (7.8 μg/0.5 mL saliva sample) from the manual purification method was comparable to the DNA yield from blood by the salt precipitation method (7.4 ug/0.5 mL blood sample). DNA extracted from saliva and blood were both of high purity (A 260/280 >1.70). Genotype results (PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing) for all sets of blood-saliva DNA samples were in 100% concordance. Conclusions: Saliva samples, when extracted by the manual purification method, provide a similar amount of human DNA as compared to the amount obtained from blood. Saliva is a viable alternative DNA source for genotyping studies.


Teh L.K.,University Technology of MARA | Langmia I.M.,University Technology of MARA | Fazleen Haslinda M.H.,University Technology of MARA | Ngow H.A.,IIUM Kuantan | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

What is known and Objectives: Testing for cytochrome P450-2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) variant alleles is recommended by the FDA for dosing of warfarin. However, dose prediction models derived from data obtained in one population may not be applicable to another. We therefore studied the impact of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 on warfarin dose requirement in Malaysia. Methods: Patients who were attending clinics at our hospital and prescribed warfarin with stabilized INR levels of 2-4 were selected. DNA was extracted from blood samples and subsequently genotyped for CYP2C9*1,*2,*3, VKORC1 (G-1639A) and VKORC1 C1173T. Linear regression modelling using age, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes, sex, weight and height was undertaken to define a warfarin dosing algorithm. An initial model was developed using data from one cohort of patients and validated using data from a second cohort. Results and Discussion: A model which included age and variants of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 account for about 37% of the variability in warfarin dose required to achieve INR of 2-4. Among the parameters evaluated, only VKORC1 (G-1639A) and (C1173T) alleles, and age correlated with warfarin dose at 6 month. The mean dose predicted using the algorithm derived from cohort 1 was lower than the actual dose for cohort 2 (3·30 mg, SD 0·84 vs. 3·45 mg, SD 1·42). There was no relationship between INR values and the dose taken by the patients. Race, sex, weight and height did not correlate with dose. What is new and Conclusion: This study identifies factors which affect warfarin dosing in the Malaysia population. However, our best model does not account sufficiently for the variability in dose requirements for it to be used in dose prediction for the individual patient. Other important influential factors affecting warfarin dose requirement remain to be identified. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


PubMed | UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Differentiation; research in biological diversity | Year: 2013

Human embryonic stem cells (hESc) are known for its pluripotency and self renewal capability, thus possess great potential in regenerative medicine. However, the lack of suitable xenofree extracellular matrix substrate inhibits further applications or the use of hESc in cell-based therapy. In this study, we described a new differentiation method, which generates a homogeneous population of mesenchymal progenitor cells (hESc-MPC) from hESc via epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins from hESc-MPC had in turn supported the undifferentiated expansion of hESc. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry characterization of hESc-MPC revealed the presence of early mesenchymal markers. Tandem mass spectometry analysis of ECM produced by hESc-MPC revealed the presence of a mixture of extracellular proteins which includes tenascin C, fibronectin, and vitronectin. The pluripotency of hESc (MEL-1) cultured on the ECM was maintained as shown by the expression of pluripotent genes (FoxD3, Oct-4, Tdgf1, Sox-2, Nanog, hTERT, Rex1), protein markers (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-81, TRA-1-60, Oct-4) and the ability to differentiate into cells representative of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In summary, we have established a xeno-free autogenic feeder free system to support undifferentiated expansion of hESc, which could be of clinical relevance.


PubMed | UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute
Type: | Journal: EXCLI journal | Year: 2017

Haemoglobin (Hb)-M Hyde Park, also known as Hb-M Akita is a rare type of hereditary Hb M due to autosomal dominant mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 of globin gene resulting in the replacement of histidine by tyrosine on globin chain. This variant Hb has a tendency to form methaemoglobin (metHb). The iron ion in metHb is oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) which is unable to carry oxygen and the patients manifest as cyanosis clinically. A 9-year-old Malay girl was incidentally found to be cyanotic when she presented to a health clinic. Laboratory investigations revealed raised methaemoglobin levels and Hb analysis findings were consistent with Hb-M Hyde Park. gene sequencing confirmed a point mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 in one of the genes. The family study done on the individuals with cyanosis showed similar findings. A diagnosis of heterozygous Hb-M Hyde Park was made. Patients with this variant Hb usually presented with cyanosis with mild haemolysis and maybe misdiagnosed as congenital heart disease. No further treatment is needed as patients are relatively asymptomatic. Although the disease is harmless in the heterozygous carriers but the offspring of the carriers may suffer severe haemolytic anaemia when the offspring also inherit other haemoglobinopathies/thalassemia. This can happen due to high prevalence of thalassemia carrier (3.5-4 %) found in Malaysia. At the time of writing, this is the first case of hereditary Hb-M Hyde Park diagnosed in a Malay family living in Malaysia.

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