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Bixby H.,UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit | Hodgson S.,UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit | Fortunato L.,UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit | Hansell A.,UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England.We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space. © 2015 Bixby et al.

Fecht D.,UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit | Fischer P.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | Fortunato L.,UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit | Hoek G.,University Utrecht | And 7 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 μg/m3 higher PM10 and 4.4 μg/m3 NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 μg/m3 higher PM10 and 10.1 μg/m3 NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 μg/m3 higher PM10 and 4.5 μg/m3 NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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