UK Institute of Food Research
UK Institute of Food Research
Johnson I.T.,UK Institute of Food Research
British Medical Bulletin | Year: 2017
Introduction: Meat has been classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogenic to humans. The evidence and the implications for health are reviewed. Sources of data: Evidence was obtained from published reports and systematic reviews published before and since the IARC decision. Areas of agreement: Epidemiology indicates that processed meat products are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Evidence for red meat and for other cancers remains tentative. Areas of controversy: Several mechanisms for mutagenic effects of meat consumption have been identified but it is not clear which cause cancer in humans. The extent to which complete abstention from meat protects against cancer is also uncertain. Growing points: Prospective studies on meat consumption in western populations will continue to illuminate the details of carcinogenesis, and effective strategies for reducing risk. Areas timely for developing research: Further studies on the precise mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human populations would assist both food manufacturers and the general public to minimize risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Maldonado-Valderrama J.,UK Institute of Food Research |
Patino J.M.R.,University of Seville
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010
The distribution of proteins and surfactants at fluid interfaces (air-water and oil-water) is determined by the competitive adsorption between the two types of emulsifiers and by the nature of the protein-surfactant interactions, both at the interface and in the bulk phase, with a pronounced impact on the interfacial rheological properties of these systems. Therefore, the interfacial rheology is of practical importance for food dispersion (emulsion or foam) formulation, texture, and stability. In this review, the existence of protein-surfactant interactions, the mechanical behaviour and/or the composition of emulsifiers at the interface are indirectly determined by interfacial rheology of the mixed films. The effect on the interfacial rheology of protein-surfactant mixed films of the protein, the surfactant, the interface and bulk compositions, the method of formation of the interfacial film, the interactions between film forming components, and the displacement of protein by surfactant have been analysed. The last section tries to understand the role of interfacial rheology of protein-surfactant mixed films on food dispersion formation and stability. The emphasis of the present review is on the interfacial dilatational rheology. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Mackie A.,UK Institute of Food Research |
Macierzanka A.,UK Institute of Food Research
Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2010
The increase in food related health issues has sparked an interest in research on the digestion processes of the gastrointestinal tract. Because of the difficulty and expense of undertaking human trials or even animal experiments, much of the current research uses in vitro models that simulate various aspects of digestion. The results of this research indicate that the rate and extent of protein digestion is governed by accessibility of the cleavage sites to enzymes and local flexibility of the substrate molecule. However, results have also shown that digestion of an allergenic protein to small fragments does not necessarily mean that it will no longer be immunologically active. Other factors are also important. For example, adsorption to an interface increased rates of digestion as did the presence of bile acids. In fact, interaction with a range of physiological surfactants has been shown to be extremely important in protein digestion. When protein is adsorbed to an emulsified food it can be displaced by the surfactants in either the stomach or the small intestine. Lipid interaction with the protein in solution has been demonstrated to be important in effecting rates of proteolysis and phospholipids in particular have provided a protective effect for some milk proteins. Conversely the presence of specific proteins has been shown to affect rates of lipid digestion. The number of such colloidal interactions that we now know may play a role in protein digestion highlights the importance of this area to understanding how we can produce food that optimises nutrition for the consumer. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Etzold S.,University of California at San Diego |
Juge N.,UK Institute of Food Research
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2014
The mucosal layer covering our gut epithelium represents the first line of host defenses against the luminal content, while enabling contacts between the resident microbiota and the host. Mucus is mainly composed of mucins, large glycoproteins containing a protein core and a high number of O-linked oligosaccharides. Mucin glycans act as binding sites or carbon sources for the intestinal microbes, thereby functioning as a host-specific determinant affecting the microbiota composition and human health. Reflecting the structural diversity of mucin glycans and their prime location, commensal and pathogenic microbes have evolved a range of adhesins allowing their interaction with the host. However, despite the recognised importance of mucin glycans in modulating intestinal homeostasis, information on carbohydrate-binding proteins from gut bacteria is disparate. This review is focussed on recent structural insights into host-microbe interactions mediated by mucins. © 2014.
Wilhelm T.,UK Institute of Food Research
BMC Bioinformatics | Year: 2014
Background: DNA methylation (DNAm) has important regulatory roles in many biological processes and diseases. It is the only epigenetic mark with a clear mechanism of mitotic inheritance and the only one easily available on a genome scale. Aberrant cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) methylation has been discussed in the context of disease aetiology, especially cancer. CpG hypermethylation of promoter regions is often associated with silencing of tumour suppressor genes and hypomethylation with activation of oncogenes.Supervised principal component analysis (SPCA) is a popular machine learning method. However, in a recent application to phenotype prediction from DNAm data SPCA was inferior to the specific method EVORA.Results: We present Model-Selection-SPCA (MS-SPCA), an enhanced version of SPCA. MS-SPCA applies several models that perform well in the training data to the test data and selects the very best models for final prediction based on parameters of the test data.We have applied MS-SPCA for phenotype prediction from genome-wide DNAm data. CpGs used for prediction are selected based on the quantification of three features of their methylation (average methylation difference, methylation variation difference and methylation-age-correlation). We analysed four independent case-control datasets that correspond to different stages of cervical cancer: (i) cases currently cytologically normal, but will later develop neoplastic transformations, (ii, iii) cases showing neoplastic transformations and (iv) cases with confirmed cancer. The first dataset was split into several smaller case-control datasets (samples either Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) positive or negative). We demonstrate that cytology normal HPV+ and HPV- samples contain DNAm patterns which are associated with later neoplastic transformations. We present evidence that DNAm patterns exist in cytology normal HPV- samples that (i) predispose to neoplastic transformations after HPV infection and (ii) predispose to HPV infection itself. MS-SPCA performs significantly better than EVORA.Conclusions: MS-SPCA can be applied to many classification problems. Additional improvements could include usage of more than one principal component (PC), with automatic selection of the optimal number of PCs. We expect that MS-SPCA will be useful for analysing recent larger DNAm data to predict future neoplastic transformations. © 2014 Wilhelm; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Traka M.H.,UK Institute of Food Research |
Mithen R.F.,UK Institute of Food Research
Plant Cell | Year: 2011
The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists.
Juge N.,UK Institute of Food Research
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2012
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is lined by a layer of mucus formed by mucin glycoproteins. This layer constitutes a physical and chemical barrier between the intestinal contents and the underlying epithelia. In addition to this protective role, mucins harbor glycan-rich domains that provide preferential binding sites for pathogens and commensal bacteria. Although mucus-microbial interactions in the GIT play a crucial role in determining the outcome of relationships of both commensal and pathogens with the host, the adhesins and ligands involved in the interaction are poorly delineated. This review focuses on the current knowledge of microbial adhesins to gastrointestinal mucus and mucus components. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Morris V.J.,UK Institute of Food Research
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2011
Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and the manipulation of materials at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology involves the design, production and use of structures through control of the size and shape of the materials at the nanometre scale. Nanotechnology in the food sector is an emerging area with considerable research and potential products. There is particular interest in the definition and regulation of engineered nanomaterials. This term covers three classes of nanomaterials: natural and processed nanostructures in foods; particulate nanomaterials metabolized or excreted on digestion; and particulate nanomaterials not broken down on digestion, which accumulate in the body. This review describes examples of these classes and their likely status in the food industry. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Lund B.M.,UK Institute of Food Research
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2014
Low-microbial diets are advised by many institutions for people with neutropenia resulting from treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or medical conditions that increase their susceptibility to foodborne disease. In this article, the main microbiological hazards associated with foods are outlined, and a low-microbial diet in which higher-risk foods are replaced by lower-risk foods is described. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.
Wilde P.J.,UK Institute of Food Research |
Chu B.S.,UK Institute of Food Research
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2011
Amongst the main issues challenging the food manufacturing sector, health and nutrition are becoming increasingly important. Global concerns such as obesity, the ageing population and food security will have to be addressed. Food security is not just about assuring food supply, but is also about optimising nutritional delivery from the food that is available . Therefore one challenge is to optimise the health benefits from the lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Colloid scientists have an affinity for lipids because they are water insoluble, however this presents a challenge to the digestive system, which has to convert them to structures that are less insoluble so they are available for uptake. Despite this, the human digestive system is remarkably effective at digesting and absorbing most lipids. This is primarily driven through maximising energy intake, as lipids possess the highest calorific value, which was a survival trait to survive times of famine, but is now an underlying cause of obesity in developed countries with high food availability. The critical region here is the lipid-water interface, where the key reactions take place to solubilise lipids and lipid soluble nutrients. Digestive lipases have to adsorb to the oil water interface in order to hydrolyse triacylglycerols into fatty acids and mono glycerides, which accumulate at the interface , and inhibit lipase activity. Pancreatic lipase, which is responsible for the majority of lipid hydrolysis, also requires the action of bile salts and colipase to function effectively. Bile salts both aid the adsorption of co-lipase and lipase, and help solubilise the lipolysis products which have accumulated at the interface, into mixed micelles composing bile salts and a range of other lipids, to facilitate transport to the gut mucosal surface prior to uptake and absorption. The process can be affected by the lipid type, as shorter chain, fatty acids are more easily absorbed, whereas the uptake of longer chain fatty acids, particularly the very long chain n-3 fatty acids from fish oils are dependent on source and so may depend on food microstructure for optimal uptake . The uptake of some poorly water soluble nutrients are enhanced by the presence of lipids, but the mechanisms are not clear. In addition, controlling the digestion of lipids can be beneficial as slower release of lipids into the bloodstream can reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, and can promote gut feedback processes that reduce appetite. This presents an opportunity to colloid and interfacial science, as there are many unanswered questions regarding the specific physicochemical mechanisms underlying the process of lipid digestion and uptake. I will review our current knowledge of lipid digestion and present examples of how fundamental research in colloidal and interface science is beginning to address these issues. These include the adsorption behaviour of physiological surfactants such as bile salts; interfacial processes by which different polar lipids can influence lipolysis; and the effect of emulsion based delivery systems on cellular uptake of lipid soluble nutrients. A fundamental understanding of these processes is required if we are to develop intelligent design strategies for foods that will deliver optimal nutrition and improved health benefits in order to address the global challenges facing the food sector in the future. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.