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Wade G.A.,Royal Military College of Canada | Grunhut J.,Royal Military College of Canada | Grunhut J.,Queens University | Grafener G.,College Hill | And 10 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

We report magnetic and spectroscopic observations and modelling of the Of?p star HD 148937 within the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) Large Program at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. 32 high signal-to-noise ratio circularly polarized (Stokes V) spectra and 13 unpolarized (Stokes I) spectra of HD 148937 were acquired in 2009 and 2010. A definite detection of a Stokes V Zeeman signature is obtained in the grand mean of all observations [in both least-squares deconvolved (LSD) mean profiles and individual spectral lines]. The longitudinal magnetic field inferred from the Stokes V LSD profiles is consistently negative, in contrast to the essentially zero field strength measured from the diagnostic null profiles. A period search of new and archival equivalent width measurements confirms the previously reported 7.03 d variability period. The variation of equivalent widths is not strictly periodic: we present evidence for evolution of the amount or distribution of circumstellar plasma. Interpreting the 7.03 d period as the stellar rotational period within the context of the oblique rotator paradigm, we have phased the equivalent widths and longitudinal field measurements. The longitudinal field measurements show a weak sinusoidal variation of constant sign, with extrema out of phase with the Hα variation by about 0.25 cycles. From our constraint on v sini≤ 45 kms -1, we infer that the rotational axis inclination i≤ 30°. Modelling the longitudinal field phase variation directly, we obtain the magnetic obliquity β= 38 +17 -28° and dipole polar intensity B d= 1020 -380 +310 G. Simple modelling of the Hα equivalent width variation supports the derived geometry. The inferred magnetic configuration confirms the suggestion of Nazé et al., who proposed that the weaker variability of HD 148937 as compared to other members of this class is a consequence of the stellar geometry. Based on the derived magnetic properties and published wind characteristics, we find a wind magnetic confinement parameter η *≃ 20 and rotation parameter W= 0.12, supporting a picture in which the Hα emission and other line variability have their origin in an oblique, rigidly rotating magnetospheric structure resulting from a magnetically channelled wind. © 2011 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2011 RAS. Source

Coppin K.,Durham University | Pope A.,National Optical Astronomy Observatory | Menendez-Delmestre K.,Carnegie Institution for Science | Alexander D.M.,Durham University | And 22 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Spitzer spectroscopy has revealed that ≃80% of submm galaxies (SMGs) are starburst (SB)-dominated in the mid-infrared. Here we focus on the remaining ≃20% that show signs of harboring powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have obtained Spitzer-InfraRed Spectrograph spectroscopy of a sample of eight SMGs that are candidates for harboring powerful AGNs on the basis of IRAC color selection (S 8 μm/S 4.5 μm>2, i.e., likely power-law mid-infrared spectral energy distributions). SMGs with an AGN dominating (≳50%) their mid-infrared emission could represent the "missing link" sources in an evolutionary sequence involving a major merger. First of all, we detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) features in all of the SMGs, indicating redshifts from 2.5 to 3.4, demonstrating the power of the mid-infrared to determine redshifts for these optically faint dusty galaxies. Second, we see signs of both star formation (from the PAH features) and AGN activity (from continuum emission) in our sample: 62% of the sample are AGN-dominated in the mid-infrared with a median AGN content of 56%, compared with <30% on average for typical SMGs, revealing that our IRAC color selection has successfully singled out sources with proportionately more AGN emission than typical SB-dominated SMGs. However, we find that only about 10% of these AGNs dominate the bolometric emission of the SMG when the results are extrapolated to longer infrared wavelengths, implying that AGNs are not a significant power source to the SMG population overall, even when there is evidence in the mid-infrared for substantial AGN activity. When existing samples of mid-infrared AGN-dominated SMGs are considered, we find that S 8 μm/S 4.5 μm>1.65 works well at selecting mid-infrared energetically dominant AGNs in SMGs, implying a duty cycle of 15% if all SMGs go through a subsequent mid-infrared AGN-dominated phase in the proposed evolutionary sequence. © 2010 The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Bracken C.,National University of Ireland | O'Sullivan C.,National University of Ireland | Murphy J.A.,National University of Ireland | Donohoe A.,National University of Ireland | And 3 more authors.
Infrared Physics and Technology | Year: 2016

FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Guillard P.,California Institute of Technology | Guillard P.,University Paris - Sud | Rodet T.,University Paris - Sud | Ronayette S.,University Paris Diderot | And 16 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

The Mid Infra Red Instrument (MIRI) is one of the four instruments onboard the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), providing imaging, coronagraphy and spectroscopy over the 5 - 28 μm band. To verify the optical performance of the instrument, extensive tests were performed at CEA on the flight model (FM) of the Mid-InfraRed IMager (MIRIM) at cryogenic temperatures and in the infrared. This paper reports on the point spread function (PSF) measurements at 5.6 μm, the shortest operating wavelength for imaging. At 5.6 μm, the PSF is not Nyquist-sampled, so we use am original technique that combines a microscanning measurement strategy with a deconvolution algorithm to obtain an over-resolved MIRIM PSF. The microscanning consists in a sub-pixel scan of a point source on the focal plane. A data inversion method is used to reconstruct PSF images that are over-resolved by a factor of 7 compared to the native resolution of MIRI. We show that the FWHM of the high-resolution PSFs were 5 - 10 % wider than that obtained with Zemax simulations. The main cause was identified as an out-of-specification tilt of the M4 mirror. After correction, two additional test campaigns were carried out, and we show that the shape of the PSF is conform to expectations. The FWHM of the PSFs are 0.18 - 0.20 arcsec, in agreement with simulations. 56.1 - 59.2% of the total encircled energy (normalized to a 5 arcsec radius) is contained within the first dark Airy ring, over the whole field of view. At longer wavelengths (7.7 - 25.5 μm), this percentage is 57 - 68 %. MIRIM is thus compliant with the optical quality requirements. This characterization of the MIRIM PSF, as well as the deconvolution method presented here, are of particular importance, not only for the verification of the optical quality and the MIRI calibration, but also for scientific applications. © 2010 SPIE. Source

Coles B.C.,Rutherford Appleton Laboratory | Webb S.E.D.,Rutherford Appleton Laboratory | Schwartz N.,UK ATC | Rolfe D.J.,Rutherford Appleton Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Biomedical Optics Express | Year: 2016

Optical aberrations degrade image quality in fluorescence microscopy, including for single-molecule based techniques. These depend on post-processing to localize individual molecules in an image series. Using simulated data, we show the impact of optical aberrations on localization success, accuracy and precision. The peak intensity and the proportion of successful localizations strongly reduces when the aberration strength is greater than 1.0 rad RMS, while the precision of each of those localisations is halved. The number of false-positive localisations exceeded 10% of the number of true-positive localisations at an aberration strength of only ~0.6 rad RMS when using the ThunderSTORM package, but at greater than 1.0 rad RMS with the Radial Symmetry package. In the presence of coma, the localization error reaches 100 nm at ~0.6 rad RMS of aberration strength. The impact of noise and of astigmatism for axial resolution are also considered. Understanding the effect of aberrations is crucial when deciding whether the addition of adaptive optics to a single-molecule microscope could significantly increase the information obtainable from an image series. © 2016 Optical Society of America. Source

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