Ren B.O.,Content Security |
Li C.,University of Swansea |
Yan X.,Content Security |
Lin M.C.,UK |
And 3 more authors.
ACM Transactions on Graphics | Year: 2014
This article presents a versatile and robust SPH simulation approach for multiple-fluid flows. The spatial distribution of different phases or components is modeled using the volume fraction representation, the dynamics of multiple-fluid flows is captured by using an improved mixture model, and a stable and accurate SPH formulation is rigorously derived to resolve the complex transport and transformation processes encountered in multiple-fluid flows. The new approach can capture a wide range of real-world multiple-fluid phenomena, including mixing/unmixing of miscible and immiscible fluids, diffusion effect and chemical reaction, etc. Moreover, the new multiple-fluid SPH scheme can be readily integrated into existing state-of-the-art SPH simulators, and the multiple-fluid simulation is easy to set up. Various examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. ©2014 ACM.
James D.V.,UK |
Farnham F.R.,London UK
Behavioral Sciences and the Law | Year: 2016
Specialized units for the assessment and management of concerning behaviors towards public figures have been set up in various jurisdictions. Their efficacy has been demonstrated descriptively and in terms of reduction in concern rates. This study of 100 consecutive cases from the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre (FTAC) in the UK uses a novel measure of outcome in the form of reduction in behaviors of concern and in police call-outs/stops, using data culled from police and health service records. It adopts a mirrored design, comparing individuals over 12-month and 2-year periods before and after FTAC intervention. It demonstrates significant reductions in both numbers of individuals involved in, and number of actual incidents of, concerning communication and problematic approach, as well as police call-outs/stops. Most results are consistent across subgroups with regard to gender, previous convictions, concern level, compulsory hospitalization and grievance-driven behavior. Such threat assessment units reduce risky behavior and save police time and, possibly, costs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hossain Md.S.,UKM |
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013
The paper presents a study on developing an optimum reservoir release policy by using ABC algorithm. The decision maker of a reservoir system always needs a guideline to operate the reservoir in an optimal way. Release curves have developed for high, medium and low inflow category that can answer how much water need to be release for a month by observing the reservoir level (storage condition). The Aswan high dam of Egypt has considered as the case study. 18 years of historical inflow data has used for simulation purpose and the general system performance measuring indices has measured. The application procedure and problem formulation of ABC is very simple and can be used in optimizing reservoir system. After using the actual historical inflow, the release policy succeeded in meeting demand for about 98% of total time period. © IOP Publishing Ltd 2013.
Crocker J.C.,Health Science University |
Boylan A.-M.,Health Science University |
Bostock J.,UK |
Locock L.,Health Science University
Health Expectations | Year: 2016
Background: There are mounting calls for robust, critical evaluation of the impact of patient and public involvement (PPI) in health research. However, questions remain about how to assess its impact, and whether it should be assessed at all. The debate has thus far been dominated by professionals. Objective: To explore the views of PPI contributors involved in health research regarding the impact of PPI on research, whether and how it should be assessed. Design: Qualitative interview study. Setting and participants: Thirty-eight PPI contributors involved in health research across the UK. Results: Participants felt that PPI has a beneficial impact on health research. They described various impactful roles, which we conceptualize as the 'expert in lived experience', the 'creative outsider', the 'free challenger', the 'bridger', the 'motivator' and the 'passive presence'. Participants generally supported assessing the impact of PPI, while acknowledging the challenges and concerns about the appropriateness and feasibility of measurement. They expressed a range of views about what impacts should be assessed, by whom and how. Individual feedback on impact was seen as an important driver of improved impact and motivation to stay involved. Conclusions: While there appears to be widespread support for PPI impact assessment among PPI contributors, their views on what to assess and how are diverse. PPI contributors should be involved as equal partners in debates and decisions about these issues. Individual feedback on impact may increase PPI contributors' potential impact and their motivation to stay involved. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bolest | Year: 2013
Cognitive therapy addresses these aspects of pain management: the importance of realistic, healthy beliefs, attitudes and behaviors in reducing the emotional and physical suffering associated with chronic pain. Skill of cognitive psychotherapist to do case conceptualization is an important in order to assist their chronic pain patients. It is an integrated picture of the patient's presenting problem given his/her historical and cultural context from a cognitive therapy orientation. It is the therapist's view of the larger picture of the patient's presenting problem with pain and how the problems developed and are maintained. In particular the therapist identifies the patient's key automatic thoughts, intermediate and core beliefs related to the presenting problems. Significant environmental, cultural and social forces that may influence the development or maintainance of the patient's problems are also identified by the therapist as part of the conceptualization of pain problems. When a person experiences with pain sensation will have some emotional response to it and will experience thoughts following the pain. For example the patient, lady A., with chronic pain in her low back bent down to pick up the newspaper on the ground. She experienced and intense stabbing sensation in her low back. She felt very frustrated and thought: "Why is this happening to me? I cannot even pick up a newspaper without experiencing pain. I should not have to deal with this." At the same time she also felt hopeless and thought: "I will never be able to live a normal life again." The emotion she experienced was frustration. Her cognition was negative in nature. Similarly thoughts and emotions that are activated in the brain may modulate the pain signal. In other words patients' thoughts, memories and emotions can influence the experience of pain physiologically in the central and peripheral nervous system. In case-study of lady A. we are describing her presenting problems (i.e. current functioning, chronic pain condition), next developmental profile (history, relationships, significant events and traumas) and last but not least cognitive profile (typical problems at present - identify situations; typical automatic thoughts, experience of pain, mood and behaviors in those situations; intermediate and core beliefs). Integration and conceptualization of cognitive and developmental profiles focuses in case of lady A. on formulation of self-concept nad concept of others, interaction of life events and cognitive vulnerability, compensatory and coping strategies and development and maintenance of current problem. We describe in case-study only first part of conceptualization, so-called diagnostic-clinical formulation. We are bringing to the end the case study with implication for therapy. Suitability for cognitive interventions, personality, patient's motivation for therapy, therapist's goals, predicted difficulties and modifications of cognitive therapy are discussed.
PubMed | UK
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) | Year: 2016
The article by Stephen Wright on prayer as a part of patient care (reflections March 11) took me back to my nurse training in Pakistan in the 1990s. I trained in Karachi at the Liaquat National Hospital and Paramedical Institute.
PubMed | UK.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ quality improvement reports | Year: 2016
Failing to return from leave from acute psychiatric wards can have a range of negative consequences for patients, relatives and staff. This study used quality improvement methodology to improve the processes around patient leave and time away from the ward. The aim of this study was to improve rates of on-time return from leave by detained and informal patients by 50%. Following a baseline period, four interventions were implemented and refined using PDSA cycles. The main outcome measure was the proportion of periods of leave where the patient returned on time. Late return was defined as failure to return to the ward within 10 minutes of the agreed time. At baseline, the rate for on-time return was 56.0%; this increased to 87.1% post-intervention, a statistically significant increase of 55.5%. SPC charts show that the interventions were associated with improvements. The improvements have been sustained and the interventions are fully embedded into daily practice. The project was refined to local context and trialled on six additional wards: four of the six wards have successfully implemented the interventions and have on-time return rates of over 90%. This project produced a marked and sustained improvement in patients returning on-time from leave, facilitating a more open discussion between staff and patients about the purpose and value of periods away from the ward. Quality improvement approaches can be effectively applied in mental health settings.
PubMed | UK.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMJ quality improvement reports | Year: 2016
The last half century has seen significant changes to Maternity services in England. Though rates of maternal and infant mortality have fallen to very low levels, this has been achieved largely through hospital admission. It has been argued that maternity services may have become over-medicalised and service users have expressed a preference for more personalised care. NHS Englands national strategy sets out a vision for a modern maternity service that continues to deliver safe care whilst also adopting the principles of personalisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop maternity services that balance safety with personal choice. To address this challenge, a maternity unit in North East England considered improving their service through refurbishment or building new facilities. Using a design process known as the production preparation process (or 3P), the Lean principles of understanding user value, mapping value-streams, creating flow, developing pull processes and continuous improvement were applied to the design of a new maternity department. Multiple stakeholders were engaged in the design through participation in a time-out (3P) workshop in which an innovative pathway and facility for maternity services were co-designed. The team created a hybrid model that they described as wrap around care in which the Lean concept of pull was applied to create a service and facility design in which expectant mothers were put at the centre of care with clinicians, skills, equipment and supplies drawn towards them in line with acuity changes as needed. Applying the Lean principles using the 3P method helped stakeholders to create an innovative design in line with the aspirations and objectives of the National Maternity Review. The case provides a practical example of stakeholders applying the Lean principles to maternity services and demonstrates the potential applicability of the Lean 3P approach to design healthcare services in line with policy requirements.
PubMed | UK. and London
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Behavioral sciences & the law | Year: 2016
Specialized units for the assessment and management of concerning behaviors towards public figures have been set up in various jurisdictions. Their efficacy has been demonstrated descriptively and in terms of reduction in concern rates. This study of 100 consecutive cases from the Fixated Threat Assessment Centre (FTAC) in the UK uses a novel measure of outcome in the form of reduction in behaviors of concern and in police call-outs/stops, using data culled from police and health service records. It adopts a mirrored design, comparing individuals over 12-month and 2-year periods before and after FTAC intervention. It demonstrates significant reductions in both numbers of individuals involved in, and number of actual incidents of, concerning communication and problematic approach, as well as police call-outs/stops. Most results are consistent across subgroups with regard to gender, previous convictions, concern level, compulsory hospitalization and grievance-driven behavior. Such threat assessment units reduce risky behavior and save police time and, possibly, costs. Copyright 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PubMed | UK
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of cardiovascular surgery | Year: 2014
Critical limb ischemia frequently occurs on a background of extensive co-morbidities and carries a poor prognosis which requires urgent management. Disease severity and patient comorbidity influence the initial choice of management which according to traditional paradigms, is a choice between open or endovascular repair. Over the last decade hybrid intervention, which is the planned combined use of both open and endovascular techniques, has increasingly been used to tackle multilevel disease. In this review we look at the techniques and results of hybrid surgery. This technique is ideal for multilevel lesions, as it is minimally invasive, allows prompt limb revascularization as opposed to the delays inherent in staged procedures and it appears to be more convenient to patients. It also leads to reduced length of hospital stay and reduces overall cost. Most importantly it offers an alternative to open revascularization in medically high risk patients. The success and popularity of hybrid interventions has been underpinned by advances in stent and balloon technology and the advent of the hybrid operating theatre which has allowed multiple techniques to be used simultaneously. Iliac angioplasty and stenting is now the first line of treatment for TASC C/D iliac lesions with good technical success and long-term patency. In patients who also have common femoral disease, endarterectomy can be combined with iliac stenting and this has now almost replaced open bypass. Most series for a variety of hybrid procedures report good limb salvage rates, with morbidity and mortality data considered equal to or better than open bypass procedures. Careful patient selection and detailed preoperative planning are essential to achieve these excellent results. Studies have reported on prospective series or retrospective analysis for various hybrid techniques, including non randomized trials comparing hybrid and open surgical treatment. Ideally, a randomized controlled trial comparing open and hybrid treatment is needed to minimize confounding variables.