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Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

A great deal of research information has been generated regarding cancer incidence rates and underlying risk factors. Since incidence:mortality ratios are generally less than 2:1 and often approach equivalence there clearly is a need for particular emphasis on preventive measures and early detection. Whether the latter should be through screening or education for improved awareness will depend on the socioeconomic conditions and the organ site. The location within the body, physiological factors and the cell type, whether essentially glandular or squamous, and the particular risk and protective factors operating in the particular social context will all impact on what measures can be recommended. Here the focus is on primary and secondary prevention of cancers in the various regions of Asia, taking into account similarities and differences in etiology for organs/tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the thyroid and non-Hogkins lymphomas and leukemias. Globocan 2002 data on incidence and mortality and all of the findings reviewed in the Regional Reviews were taken into account in compiling this overview. The chief recommendations are education in the developing world, to overcome the problem of late presentation at hospital (reflected by high mortality/incidence ratios), betel and tobacco control for the oral cavity and pharynx, reduce salt intake and targeting of Helicobacter pylori for the stomach, reduction in food intake, improvement in the diet and more exercise for the colorectum, kidney, prostate, breast, ovary and endometrium, reduction in smoking and exposure to other fumes for the lung, increase in water intake, particularly for the urinary bladder, and avoidance of parasites for the special cases of the urinary bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. The cancer registry could be a major resource for development of further research capacity, with selection of suitable partners in areas with contrasting cancer rates and lifestyles for detailed comparisons applying the same protocols. This should facilitate future exploration and hopefully elucidation of any anomalies, so that cancer control programs can be optimized in accordance. Source


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, with their total population of more than 1,500 million, make up the subcontinent of South Asia. Despite massive diversity across the region, there are sufficient similarities to warrant a collective approach to chronic disease control, including development of cancer control programs. Cancer is already a major problem and there are general similarities in the prevalence patterns. In males, oral and lung cancer are either number one or two, depending on the registry, with the exceptions of Quetta in the far north, Larkana and Chennai. Moderately high numbers of pharyngeal and/or laryngeal cancer are also consistently observed, with prostate cancer now becoming visible in the more developed cities. Breast and cervical cancer share first and second place except in Muslim Pakistan, where oral cancer generally follows breast. The ovary is often included in the five most prevalent types. Markedly increasing rates for breast cancer and distribution shifts in other cancers suggest that, despite improvement in cervical and oral rates, the overall burden will only become heavier over time, especially with increasing obesity and aging of what are still youthful populations. Coordination of activities within South Asia is a high priority for cancer control in the region. Source


Salim E.I.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

South-West Asia, stretching from Lebanon and Syria in the north, through to Yemen in the south and Iraq in the east, is the home of more than 250 million people. Cancer is already a major problem and the markedly increasing rates for diabetes suggest that the burden of adenocarcinomas will only become heavier over time, especially with increasing obesity and aging of what are now still youthful populations. The age-distributions of the affected patients in fact might also indicate cohort effects in many cases. There are a number of active registries in the region and population-based data are now available for a considerable number of countries. Scientists from the region are also contributing to epidemiological research into the causes of cancer and how to develop effective control programs. The present review covers the relevant PubMed literature and cancer incidence data from various sources, highlighting similarities and variation in the different cancer types, with attempts to explain disparities with reference to environmental factors. In males, the most prevalent cancers vary, with lung urinary bladder or liver in first place, while for females throughout the region breast cancer is the major problem. In both sexes, non-Hodgkins lymphomas and leukemias are relatively prevalent, along with lung in males and thyroid in certain female populations. Coordination of activities within the Arab world, as well as Israel, could bring major benefits to cancer control in the eastern Mediterranean region. Source


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region. Source


Long N.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-East Asia are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. Source

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