UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control

Thailand

UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control

Thailand
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Han M.A.,National Cancer Control Institute | Choi K.S.,National Cancer Control Institute | Park J.-H.,National Cancer Control Institute | Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control | Park E.-C.,National Cancer Control Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2011

The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare and the Korean National Cancer Center (NCC) developed the Second-term 10-year Plan for Cancer Control, 2006-2015, on the basis of an evaluation of progress of the First-term Plan for Cancer Control (10-yr PCC) from 2005-2006. The second-term 10-yr PCC started with two main objectives and 35 specific aims in eight focus areas, with the overall goal of reducing the economic burden of cancer. We here assessed the status of the 10-yr PCC objectives by midcourse evaluation in 2010, mid-way through the second term. Based on our evaluation and comments received from the government and the NCC, the Cancer Control 2015 objectives were modified. Of the original two main and 35 specific objectives in eight focus areas, four specific objectives were deleted because they were not relevant to the focus areas and three were revised to reflect changes in data sources or projects. In addition, four new objectives were introduced to reflect new data sources or emerging projects. The 2015 targets of 13 objectives were also modified to reflect the midcourse evaluation. This mid-term exercise provided an opportunity to assess the progress made during the first half of the decade and thereby accurately characterize the current and future status of cancer control and effectively manage cancer-control programs.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

The North-Western and Central region of Asia stretches from Turkey through Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan, to Iran and Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tadjikistan and Afghanistan. These countries in the main share Turkic, Iranian or Caucasus ethnicity and culture and can be considered as a regional entity for cooperation in control of cancer. The present review of cancer registry and other epidemiological data was undertaken to provide an evidence base for cancer control programs and pointers to possible research collaboration. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung in the Western part of the region and the stomach in most of Iran and Central Asia, followed by the oesophagus in the latter two. Bladder cancer is comparatively frequent throughout. In females breast cancer is number one, generally followed by gastric, oesophageal or cervical lesions. However, there are interesting differences between countries or regions, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control, underlying the necessity for cooperation.


Long N.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan constitute North-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity and culture, with various degress of mixed Chinese and Altaic elements, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and particularly cancer. The fact of problems shared in common, with increasing disease rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of cancer registration and epidemiology data was conducted. The most frequent cancers in males of North-East Asia are in the lung, liver and stomach, with considerable geographical and temporal variation in their respective prevalences. However, colorectal cancer is also of increasing importance. In females the breast, together with the lung in China, the liver in Mongolia and the stomach in Korea and Japan, are most frequent. Variation in risk factors depends to a large extent on the local level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, East Timor and the Philippines constitute peninsular and island South-East Asia. For reasons of largely shared ethnicity, with Chinese elements added to the basic Austromalaysian populations, as well as geographical contiguity, they can be usefully grouped together for studies of chronic disease prevalence and underlying risk factors. The fact of problems are shared in common, particularly regarding increasing cancer rates, underlines the necessity for a coordinated approach to research and development of control measures. To provide a knowledge base, the present review of available data for cancer registration, epidemiology and control was conducted. The most prevalent cancer site in males is the lung, followed by the liver, colon or the prostate in the majority of cases, while breast and cervical cancers predominate in most female populations. However, there are interesting differences among the racial groups, particularly regarding the stomach. General tendencies for increase in adenocarcinomas but decrease in squamous cell carcinomas and gastric cancer, point to change in environmental influence over time. Variation in risk factors depends to some extent on the level of economic development but overall the countries of the region face similar challenges in achieving effective cancer control. A major task is persuading the general populace of the efficacy of early detection and clinical treatment.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

The countries of mainland South-East Asia, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Viet Nam, share a long history of interactions and many cultural similarities, as well as geographical contiguity. They therefore can be usefully examined as a group when considering measures for control of cancer and other non-communicable diseases. Liver cancer is consistently found at higher incidence than most other parts of Asia, with lung cancer as the other most important neoplasm in males. In females cervical and breast cancer about equally predominate, throughout. However, there are also major differences, particularly with regard to stomach and nasopharyngeal cancer, only found at relatively high incidence in Viet Nam. The present review was conducted to gather together registry data on cancer prevalence and epidemiological findings cited in PubMed in order to obtain as comprehensive picture as possible of the present status. It is hoped that future cooperation across the region will facilitate development of coordinated cancer control programs to reduce the burden.


Salim E.I.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

South-West Asia, stretching from Lebanon and Syria in the north, through to Yemen in the south and Iraq in the east, is the home of more than 250 million people. Cancer is already a major problem and the markedly increasing rates for diabetes suggest that the burden of adenocarcinomas will only become heavier over time, especially with increasing obesity and aging of what are now still youthful populations. The age-distributions of the affected patients in fact might also indicate cohort effects in many cases. There are a number of active registries in the region and population-based data are now available for a considerable number of countries. Scientists from the region are also contributing to epidemiological research into the causes of cancer and how to develop effective control programs. The present review covers the relevant PubMed literature and cancer incidence data from various sources, highlighting similarities and variation in the different cancer types, with attempts to explain disparities with reference to environmental factors. In males, the most prevalent cancers vary, with lung urinary bladder or liver in first place, while for females throughout the region breast cancer is the major problem. In both sexes, non-Hodgkins lymphomas and leukemias are relatively prevalent, along with lung in males and thyroid in certain female populations. Coordination of activities within the Arab world, as well as Israel, could bring major benefits to cancer control in the eastern Mediterranean region.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

The Pacific Ocean contains approximately 25,000 islands, stretching from Papua New Guinea to Easter Island, populated by mixtures of Melanesians, Micronesians and Polynesians, as well as migrant groups from Asia and Europe. The region encompasses a third of the surface of the earth although it is sparsely populated at a total of around 9 million. With the exception of some of the more populated islands, such as New Zealand and Hawaii, few surveys of chronic diseases have been conducted, but it is increasingly recognized that obesity, diabetes and associated conditions are emerging public health problems and clearly there is a need for cooperation to optimize control. Here we focus on cancer registry and epidemiological findings for Papua New Guinea, the Solomons, Vanuatu, Samoa, New Caledonia, Fiji, Polynesia, French Polynesia, Maori in New Zealand, Native Hawaiians, Micronesia, including Guam, and Aboriginal populations in Australia as assessed by PubMed searches and perusal of the International Agency for Cancer Research descriptive epidemiology database. Overall, the major cancers in males are oral and liver in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, and lung and prostate elsewhere (Fiji being exceptional in demonstrating a predominance of esophageal cancer), whereas in females it is breast and either cervix or lung, depending largely on whether cervical cancer screening program is active. In certain locations thyroid cancer is also very prevalent in females. The similarities and variation point to advantages for collaborative research to provide the evidence-base for effective cancer control programs in the region.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan, with their total population of more than 1,500 million, make up the subcontinent of South Asia. Despite massive diversity across the region, there are sufficient similarities to warrant a collective approach to chronic disease control, including development of cancer control programs. Cancer is already a major problem and there are general similarities in the prevalence patterns. In males, oral and lung cancer are either number one or two, depending on the registry, with the exceptions of Quetta in the far north, Larkana and Chennai. Moderately high numbers of pharyngeal and/or laryngeal cancer are also consistently observed, with prostate cancer now becoming visible in the more developed cities. Breast and cervical cancer share first and second place except in Muslim Pakistan, where oral cancer generally follows breast. The ovary is often included in the five most prevalent types. Markedly increasing rates for breast cancer and distribution shifts in other cancers suggest that, despite improvement in cervical and oral rates, the overall burden will only become heavier over time, especially with increasing obesity and aging of what are still youthful populations. Coordination of activities within South Asia is a high priority for cancer control in the region.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

A great deal of research information has been generated regarding cancer incidence rates and underlying risk factors. Since incidence:mortality ratios are generally less than 2:1 and often approach equivalence there clearly is a need for particular emphasis on preventive measures and early detection. Whether the latter should be through screening or education for improved awareness will depend on the socioeconomic conditions and the organ site. The location within the body, physiological factors and the cell type, whether essentially glandular or squamous, and the particular risk and protective factors operating in the particular social context will all impact on what measures can be recommended. Here the focus is on primary and secondary prevention of cancers in the various regions of Asia, taking into account similarities and differences in etiology for organs/tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract, the urinary system, the reproductive system, the nervous system, the thyroid and non-Hogkins lymphomas and leukemias. Globocan 2002 data on incidence and mortality and all of the findings reviewed in the Regional Reviews were taken into account in compiling this overview. The chief recommendations are education in the developing world, to overcome the problem of late presentation at hospital (reflected by high mortality/incidence ratios), betel and tobacco control for the oral cavity and pharynx, reduce salt intake and targeting of Helicobacter pylori for the stomach, reduction in food intake, improvement in the diet and more exercise for the colorectum, kidney, prostate, breast, ovary and endometrium, reduction in smoking and exposure to other fumes for the lung, increase in water intake, particularly for the urinary bladder, and avoidance of parasites for the special cases of the urinary bladder and intrahepatic bile ducts. The cancer registry could be a major resource for development of further research capacity, with selection of suitable partners in areas with contrasting cancer rates and lifestyles for detailed comparisons applying the same protocols. This should facilitate future exploration and hopefully elucidation of any anomalies, so that cancer control programs can be optimized in accordance.


Moore M.A.,UICC Asian Regional Office for Cancer Control.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP | Year: 2010

Cancer and related lifestyle diseases are on the increase across Asia and already account for over half the disease-associated mortality in the vast majority of the included countries. An understanding of the epidemiology is therefore of paramount importance. In addition, given the immensity of the problem, cooperation among all the interested parties is of the essence. The present series of reviews were complied with the aim of promoting better comprehension and interaction, focusing on cancer prevalence and the underlying risk and preventive factors in Asia. Data from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents and Globocan 2002, published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, as well as various other cancer registry sources, were thus married with research information in the public domain, accessible through PubMed. It is hoped that the comprehensive approach adopted for the different regions will help bring together all of the Asian community of individuals involved in cancer epidemiology and control and contribute to establishment of Asian networks for collaborative research. The major players and the overall picture for cancer control are covered in the present overview. Further details are then provided in seven separate regional reviews: for North-Western and Central Asia; South-West Asia; South Asia; Mainland South-East Asia; Peninsular and Island South-East Asia, the Pacific; and North-East Asia. The final section covers possible organ-based strategies for cancer control and, lastly, an Appendix has been included listing research institutes and staff in Asia to facilitate contacts between interested individuals.

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