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Kirkwall, United Kingdom

Pollard E.,UHI Millennium Institute
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology | Year: 2011

A combination of reconstruction of the former coastline and field survey of previously unrecorded sites provides the basis for the study of the maritime landscape and maritime activities around Portrush on the north coast of Ireland during the Mesolithic period. Movements in relative sea-level and geological events indicate significant change in environment and availability of resources, particularly flint, for the coastal community. Evidence suggests that most Early Mesolithic material, deposited close to the then shoreline, is presently under water. Remnants of the Late Mesolithic are fast disappearing as coastal erosion continues. © 2010 The Author © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology © 2011 The Nautical Archaeology Society. Source

Matsumoto M.,Jichi Medical University | Inoue K.,Teikyo University | Farmer J.,UHI Millennium Institute | Inada H.,University of Tokyo | Kajii E.,Jichi Medical University
Health and Place | Year: 2010

Geographic distributions of primary care physicians in Japan and Britain were compared with each other. Regional variation in the number of primary care physicians per unit population was larger in Japan than in Britain. The Gini coefficient of primary care physicians against population in Japan (0.1755) was more than twice that observed for Britain (0.0837), indicating a substantially less equal distribution in Japan. The results can probably be explained by differences in the primary care systems of the two countries. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Prior M.,University of Aberdeen | Farmer J.,UHI Millennium Institute | Godden D.J.,University of Aberdeen | Taylor J.,University of South Australia
Health and Place | Year: 2010

Health services are suggested to contribute to remote communities in the ways that extend beyond healthcare delivery. This international multiple case-study research provides qualitative evidence of the social, economic and human contributions (the 'added-value') that may be lost should remote communities lose in-situ health provision. We present a typology of added-value contributions that differentiates institutional aspects (residing in buildings, or embodied in the specific status, capabilities and skills of health professionals) and individual aspects (attributable to health professionals' unique personalities and choices). This typology has relevance for communities, policymakers and managers when considering the impacts of potential service changes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Shaw C.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Taylor E.L.,Universities of Exeter and Plymouth | Fox S.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Megson I.L.,UHI Millennium Institute | Rossi A.G.,Queens Medical Research Institute
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Apoptosis of neutrophils and their subsequent phagocytosis is critical to the successful resolution of inflammation. During inflammation, activated inflammatory cells generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O 2 •-), which rapidly combine to generate peroxynitrite (ONOO -). NO and ONOO - are proapoptotic in human neutrophils. This study examines the effects of NO and ONOO - on caspase activation and mitochondrial permeability in human neutrophils and determines the ability of these species to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). NO or ONOO - release from donor compounds was characterized by electrochemistry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Neutrophils and MDMs isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were exposed to NO or ONOO - before analysis of apoptosis by caspase activation, mitochondrial permeability, and annexin V binding. Both NO and ONOO - induced apoptosis via rapid activation of caspases 2 and 3 in neutrophils. In contrast, only ONOO - promoted apoptosis in MDMs, whereas a variety of NO donors were ineffective at inducing apoptosis in this cell type. We propose that human macrophages are refractory to NO-stimulated apoptosis in order that they persist long enough within the inflammatory focus to phagocytose apoptotic neutrophils, thereby ensuring successful resolution of inflammation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Walsh C.M.,University of Liverpool | Doherty M.K.,University of Liverpool | Doherty M.K.,UHI Millennium Institute | Tepikin A.V.,University of Liverpool | Burgoyne R.D.,University of Liverpool
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2010

SOCCs (store-operated Ca2+ channels) are highly selective ion channels that are activated upon release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores to regulate a multitude of diverse cellular functions. It was reported previously that Golli-BG21, a member of the MBP (myelin basic protein) family of proteins, regulates SOCE (store-operated Ca2+ entry) in T-cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, but the underlying mechanism for this regulation is unknown. In the present study we have discovered that Golli can directly interact with the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Ca2+-sensing protein STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1). Golli interacts with the C-terminal domain of STIM1 in both in vitro and in vivo binding assays and this interaction may be modulated by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Golli also co-localizes with full-length STIM1 and Orai1 complexes in HeLa cells following Ca2+ store depletion. Overexpression of Golli reduces SOCE in HeLa cells, but this inhibition is overcome by overexpressing STIM1. We therefore suggest that Golli binds to STIM1-Orai1 complexes to negatively regulate the activity of SOCCs. © The Authors. Source

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