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Matsumoto M.,Jichi Medical University | Inoue K.,Teikyo University | Farmer J.,UHI Millennium Institute | Inada H.,University of Tokyo | Kajii E.,Jichi Medical University
Health and Place | Year: 2010

Geographic distributions of primary care physicians in Japan and Britain were compared with each other. Regional variation in the number of primary care physicians per unit population was larger in Japan than in Britain. The Gini coefficient of primary care physicians against population in Japan (0.1755) was more than twice that observed for Britain (0.0837), indicating a substantially less equal distribution in Japan. The results can probably be explained by differences in the primary care systems of the two countries. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Prior M.,University of Aberdeen | Farmer J.,UHI Millennium Institute | Godden D.J.,University of Aberdeen | Taylor J.,University of South Australia
Health and Place | Year: 2010

Health services are suggested to contribute to remote communities in the ways that extend beyond healthcare delivery. This international multiple case-study research provides qualitative evidence of the social, economic and human contributions (the 'added-value') that may be lost should remote communities lose in-situ health provision. We present a typology of added-value contributions that differentiates institutional aspects (residing in buildings, or embodied in the specific status, capabilities and skills of health professionals) and individual aspects (attributable to health professionals' unique personalities and choices). This typology has relevance for communities, policymakers and managers when considering the impacts of potential service changes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Jin S.-Z.,Jilin University | Wu N.,Jilin University | Xu Q.,Peking Union Medical College | Zhang X.,Jilin University | And 5 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2012

The present work measured circulating antibodies against native gliadins, deamidated gliadin-derived epitopes, and transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) in 473 patients with schizophrenia and 478 control subjects among a Chinese population. The results showed that 27.1% of patients with schizophrenia were positive for the IgA antibody against native gliadins compared with 17.8% of control subjects (χ 2 = 11.52, P =. 0007, OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.25-2.35), although this significant difference appeared to be due mainly to low IgA gliadin antibody levels in female controls. A total of 27.6% of female patients were positive for IgA gliadin antibodies compared with 13.9% of female controls (χ 2 = 10.46, P =. 0012, OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.39-4.01), and 26.4% of male patients were positive for IgA antibodies compared with 19.8% of male controls (χ 2 = 3.26, P =. 071, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 0.97-2.19). Of 128 patients who were positive for the IgA antibody against native gliadins, 8 were positive for the IgA antibody against deamidated gliadin epitopes and 1 was positive for IgA anti-TGM2 antibody. However, quantitative analysis demonstrated that the mean levels of IgA antibodies against deamidated gliadin epitopes and TGM2 were significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia than the control subjects (P <. 001 and P =. 008, respectively). The prevalence of IgG antibodies against native gliadins was not significantly different between the patient group and the control group (χ 2 = 2.25, P =. 134, OR = 1.32, 95% CI 0.92-1.88). This study suggests that specific gliadin-derived epitopes may be involved in schizophrenia. © 2010 The Author.


Pollard E.,UHI Millennium Institute
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology | Year: 2011

A combination of reconstruction of the former coastline and field survey of previously unrecorded sites provides the basis for the study of the maritime landscape and maritime activities around Portrush on the north coast of Ireland during the Mesolithic period. Movements in relative sea-level and geological events indicate significant change in environment and availability of resources, particularly flint, for the coastal community. Evidence suggests that most Early Mesolithic material, deposited close to the then shoreline, is presently under water. Remnants of the Late Mesolithic are fast disappearing as coastal erosion continues. © 2010 The Author © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology © 2011 The Nautical Archaeology Society.


Shaw C.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Taylor E.L.,Universities of Exeter and Plymouth | Fox S.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Megson I.L.,UHI Millennium Institute | Rossi A.G.,Queens Medical Research Institute
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Apoptosis of neutrophils and their subsequent phagocytosis is critical to the successful resolution of inflammation. During inflammation, activated inflammatory cells generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (O 2 •-), which rapidly combine to generate peroxynitrite (ONOO -). NO and ONOO - are proapoptotic in human neutrophils. This study examines the effects of NO and ONOO - on caspase activation and mitochondrial permeability in human neutrophils and determines the ability of these species to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). NO or ONOO - release from donor compounds was characterized by electrochemistry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Neutrophils and MDMs isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were exposed to NO or ONOO - before analysis of apoptosis by caspase activation, mitochondrial permeability, and annexin V binding. Both NO and ONOO - induced apoptosis via rapid activation of caspases 2 and 3 in neutrophils. In contrast, only ONOO - promoted apoptosis in MDMs, whereas a variety of NO donors were ineffective at inducing apoptosis in this cell type. We propose that human macrophages are refractory to NO-stimulated apoptosis in order that they persist long enough within the inflammatory focus to phagocytose apoptotic neutrophils, thereby ensuring successful resolution of inflammation. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Walsh C.M.,University of Liverpool | Doherty M.K.,University of Liverpool | Doherty M.K.,UHI Millennium Institute | Tepikin A.V.,University of Liverpool | Burgoyne R.D.,University of Liverpool
Biochemical Journal | Year: 2010

SOCCs (store-operated Ca2+ channels) are highly selective ion channels that are activated upon release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores to regulate a multitude of diverse cellular functions. It was reported previously that Golli-BG21, a member of the MBP (myelin basic protein) family of proteins, regulates SOCE (store-operated Ca2+ entry) in T-cells and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, but the underlying mechanism for this regulation is unknown. In the present study we have discovered that Golli can directly interact with the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) Ca2+-sensing protein STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1). Golli interacts with the C-terminal domain of STIM1 in both in vitro and in vivo binding assays and this interaction may be modulated by the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Golli also co-localizes with full-length STIM1 and Orai1 complexes in HeLa cells following Ca2+ store depletion. Overexpression of Golli reduces SOCE in HeLa cells, but this inhibition is overcome by overexpressing STIM1. We therefore suggest that Golli binds to STIM1-Orai1 complexes to negatively regulate the activity of SOCCs. © The Authors.


Farmer J.,UHI Millennium Institute | Philip L.,University of Aberdeen | King G.,University of Aberdeen | Farrington J.,University of Aberdeen | MacLeod M.,Land economics and Environment Research Group
Health and Place | Year: 2010

This paper presents findings from a qualitative study investigating older people's health service provision in remote rural Scotland. Comparing stakeholders' perspectives, contested issues were exposed where community members, service managers and policymakers disagreed. Considering these, led to the proposal that fundamental tensions exist between community and management/policy stakeholders' perspectives and these underlie service change conflicts. While highlighting issues for older people's service design, findings suggest that impacts of the current planning process require to be understood, and aspects need to be changed, before the voice of older people can inform local service policy. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


van Agtmael T.,University of Glasgow | Bailey M.A.,Queens Medical Research Institute | Schlotzer-Schrehardt U.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Craigie E.,Queens Medical Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010

Collagen type IV is the major structural component of the basement membrane and COL4A1 mutations cause adult small vessel disease, familial porencephaly and hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy aneurysm and cramps (HANAC) syndrome. Here, we show that animals with a Col4a1 missense mutation (Col4a1+/Raw) display focal detachment of the endothelium from the media and age-dependent defects in vascular function including a reduced response to nor-epinephrine. Age-dependent hypersensitivity to acetylcholine is abolished by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, indicating that Col4a1 mutations affect vasorelaxation mediated by endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). These defects are associated with a reduction in basal NOS activity and the development of heightened NO sensitivity of the smooth muscle. The vascular function defects are physiologically relevant as they maintain in part the hypotension in mutant animals, which is primarily associated with a reduced red blood cell volume due to a reduction in red blood cell number, rather than defects in kidney function. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying these vascular defects, we examined the deposition of collagen type IV in the basement membrane, and found it to be defective. Interestingly, this mutation also leads to activation of the unfolded protein response. In summary, our results indicate that mutations in COL4A1 result in a complex vascular phenotype encompassing defects in maintenance of vascular tone, endothelial cell function and blood pressure regulation. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.


Ljosland R.,UHI Millennium Institute
Journal of Pragmatics | Year: 2011

Even though Norwegian is the predominant language in almost all sectors of society in Norway, there has been an increasing tendency in the university sector in the recent years to introduce English as a medium of instruction, particularly at the post-graduate level. Using English has for some years been politically encouraged as part of internationalisation efforts, while the questions of who, where and when have largely been left up to the individual university departments and staff. This paper presents a case study of one such university department, which conducts all their teaching through the medium of English. The study asks the questions: In which ways is English being used? Has the department's English-only policy resulted in English only being used, or are Norwegian and other languages also used in certain circumstances, regardless of the policy? Why did this particular university department choose to make English its official language of instruction? The paper relates Fishman's domain theory to code-switching theory, as defined by Fishman, Auer and Heller. It further discusses whether domain- and code-switching theory is compatible with Bourdieu's theory of language and symbolic power, and Anderson's theory on imagined communities, and whether the combined application of these theories may shed light on the linguistic situation in academia. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Japp A.G.,Royal Infirmary | Cruden N.L.,Royal Infirmary | Barnes G.,University of Edinburgh | Van Gemeren N.,Royal Infirmary | And 8 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2010

Background: Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the novel G protein-coupled receptor APJ, has major cardiovascular effects in preclinical models. The study objectives were to establish the effects of acute apelin administration on peripheral, cardiac, and systemic hemodynamic variables in healthy volunteers and patients with heart failure. Methods and results: Eighteen patients with New York Heart Association class II to III chronic heart failure, 6 patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography, and 26 healthy volunteers participated in a series of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. Measurements of forearm blood flow, coronary blood flow, left ventricular pressure, and cardiac output were made by venous occlusion plethysmography, Doppler flow wire and quantitative coronary angiography, pressure wire, and thoracic bioimpedance, respectively. Intrabrachial infusions of (Pyr1)apelin-13, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside caused forearm vasodilatation in patients and control subjects (all P<0.0001). Vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P=0.01) but not apelin (P=0.3) or sodium nitroprusside (P=0.9) was attenuated in patients with heart failure. Intracoronary bolus of apelin-36 increased coronary blood flow and the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure and reduced peak and end-diastolic left ventricular pressures (all P<0.05). Systemic infusions of (Pyr 1)apelin-13 (30 to 300 nmol/min) increased cardiac index and lowered mean arterial pressure and peripheral vascular resistance in patients and healthy control subjects (all P<0.01) but increased heart rate only in control subjects (P<0.01). Conclusions: Acute apelin administration in humans causes peripheral and coronary vasodilatation and increases cardiac output. APJ agonism represents a novel potential therapeutic target for patients with heart failure. Copyright © 2010 American Heart Association. All rights reserved.

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