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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Antonio Lopez Medina J.,Hospital Universitario Virgen Of La Victoria | Gutierrez M.V.,UGC de Endocrinologia | Luisa Fernandez Soto M.,Hospital Universitario San Cecilio
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2014

Background: There is a prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), unknown DM and stress hyperglycemia among hospital patients, and the nutritional treatment is a key part of care, where carbohydrates (CH) intake is a controversial issue. There is also a discussion on the increase of prevalence for DM, obesity and metabolic disease with refined CH or sugar. Objectives: This review examines the recommendations from different scientific societies about the percentage of CH in the total calorie intake of the diabetic patient, the CH value in the glycemic index and glycemic load, the new CH included in enteral formulae and the association of refined CH with the high prevalence of DM and metabolic disease. Methods: Systematic review of literature using the electronic scientific databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Scielo, Scopus and Medline. Conclusions: Scientific societies are flexible about the CH intake in the diet of diabetic patients, suggesting to customize it according to each metabolic profile. Using the glycemic index and glycemic load can provide an extra benefit in the postprandial glycemic control. The new diabetes-specific enteral formulae, with fructooligosaccharides, resistant maltodextrins and fructose-free show efficacy in improving the glycemic control, although more controlled and long-term studies are needed. There is still some controversy about the links between sugar intake and DM, obesity and metabolic disease, although this relationship would be more linked to an increase of the total calorie intake than to a specific nutrient. © 2014 Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved. Source

Santiago P.,UGC de Endocrinologia | Berrio M.,UGC de Endocrinologia | Olmedo P.,Distrito Sanitario de Jaen | Velasco I.,Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia | And 4 more authors.
Endocrinologia y Nutricion | Year: 2011

Objetivo: To evaluate thyroid function in the three trimesters of pregnancy in healthy women taking iodine and to define the reference ranges of normality in this population. Design: Descriptive study of pregnant women to define the ranges of normality of thyroid hormones in this population. Setting: Jaen and Osuna (Spain). Population: Healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thyroid hormone determination in the three trimesters of pregnancy in healthy women taking iodine supplements. Results: A total of 429 pregnant women taking iodine supplements to maintain urinary iodine levels within the normal range were included. T4-l levels were between 0.60 and 1.06 in the first trimester, between 0.43 and 0.85 ng/dl in the second and between 0.40 and 0.82 ng/dl in the third. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) reference values were between 0.23 and 4.18. μUI/ml in the first trimester, 1.78 and 3.89. μUI/ml in the second and 2.01 and 4.30. μUI/ml in the third. T3-l values were between 2.33 and 3.84 pg/ml in the first trimester, between 2.04 and 3.51 pg/ml in the second and between 1.99 and 3.46 pg/ml in the third. Conclusion: Bearing the 3rd and 97th percentiles in mind, the reference ranges in our population were far below those recommended by our reference laboratory. In view of these results, these values should be redefined to avoid incorrect diagnoses of hyperthyroxinemia in healthy pregnant women. © 2010 SEEN. Source

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