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Ruzagira E.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Wandiembe S.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Abaasa A.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Bwanika A.N.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Objectives: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for HIV acquisition in a cohort of HIV-uninfected partners from HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda, and to establish its suitability for HIV vaccine trials. Methods: HIV-uninfected adults living in HIV discordant couple relationships were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Interviews, medical investigations, HIV counseling and testing, syphilis and urine pregnancy (women) tests were performed at quarterly visits. Sexual risk behaviour data were collected every 6 months. Results: 495 participants were enrolled, of whom 34 seroconverted during 786.6 person-years of observation (PYO). The overall HIV incidence rate [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 4.3 [3.1-6]; and 4.3 [2.8-6.4] and 4.4 [2.5-8] per 100 PYO in men and women respectively. Independent baseline predictors for HIV acquisition were young age [18-24 (aRR = 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.8) and 25-34 (aRR = 2.7,95% CI 1.2-5.8) years]; alcohol use (aRR = 2.6,95% CI 1.1-6); and reported genital discharge (aRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.2) in the past year. Condom use frequency in the year preceding enrolment was predictive of a reduced risk of HIV acquisition [sometimes (aRR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8); always (aRR = 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.9)]. In the follow-up risk analysis, young age [18-24 (aRR = 6.2, 95% CI 2.2-17.3) and 25-34 (aRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.0) years], reported genital discharge (aRR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5), serological syphilis (aRR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.7) and the partner being ART naïve (aRR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.4-16.0) were independently associated with HIV acquisition. There were no seroconversions among participants who reported consistent condom use during the study. Conclusions: The study has identified important risk factors for HIV acquisition among HIV discordant couples. HIV-uninfected partners in discordant couples may be a suitable population for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. However, recent confirmation that ART reduces heterosexual HIV transmission may make it unfeasible to conduct HIV prevention trials in this population. © 2011 Ruzagira et al.


Kibengo F.M.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Ruzagira E.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Katende D.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | Bwanika A.N.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Efficacy of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in prevention of HIV acquisition has been evaluated using a daily regimen. However, adherence to long term daily medication is rarely perfect. Intermittent regimen may be a feasible alternative. Preclinical studies have demonstrated effectiveness of intermittent PrEP in SHIV prevention among animals. However, little is known about intermittent PrEP regimens.Design:Seventy two HIV-uninfected volunteers in HIV serodiscordant couple relationships in Uganda were randomly assigned to receive daily oral Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC-Truvada) or placebo, or intermittent (Monday, Friday and within 2 hours after sex, not to exceed one dose per day) oral TDF/FTC or placebo in a 2:1:2:1 ratio. Volunteers and study staff were blinded to drug assignment, but not to regimen assignment.Methods:Volunteers were followed for 4 months after randomization, with monthly clinical and laboratory safety assessments and comprehensive HIV risk reduction services. Adherence was monitored using medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and self-report. Sexual activity data were collected via daily short text message (SMS) and self-report. HIV-specific immune responses were assessed by IFN-γ ELISPOT.Results:Both daily and intermittent oral TDF/FTC regimens were well tolerated. Median MEMS adherence rates were 98% (IQR: 93-100) for daily PrEP regimen, 91% (IQR: 73-97) for fixed intermittent dosing and 45% (IQR: 20-63) for post-coital dosing. SMS response rate was 74%, but increased to 80% after excluding server outages; results may have been affected by the novelty of this measure. The majority of volunteers expressed willingness with no particular preference for either regimen.Conclusions:Both daily and intermittent oral PrEP dosing regimens were safe. Adherence was high for daily and fixed intermittent dosing; post-coital dosing was associated with poor adherence. Fixed intermittent PrEP regimens may be feasible especially if a minimum effective drug concentration correlating with HIV prevention can be achieved with this dosing.Registration:Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00931346. © 2013 Kibengo et al.

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