Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI

Entebbe, Uganda

Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI

Entebbe, Uganda
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Rubaihayo J.,Mountains of the Moon University | Akib S.,Kampala International University | Abaasa A.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI
Infectious Disease Reports | Year: 2010

In Uganda, previous studies have shown a tremendous decline in HIV prevalence over the past two decades due to changes in sexual behavior with a greater awareness of the risks involved. However, studies in Fort-Portal municipality, a rural town in Western Uganda, continued to show a persistent high HIV prevalence despite the various interventions in place. We conducted a study to establish the current magnitude of HIV prevalence and the factors associated with HIV prevalence in this community. This cross-sectional study was conducted between July and November 2008. Participants were residents of Fort-Portal municipality aged 15-49 years. A population-based HIV sero-survey and a clinical review of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) and voluntary counseling and HIV Testing (VCT) records were used to collect quantitative data. An inteviewer administered structured questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data on social deographics, risk behaviour and community perceptions. Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews provided supplementary data on community perceptions. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. The overall HIV prevalence in the general population was 16.1% [95% CI; 12.5-20.6]. Prevalence was lower among women (14.5%; 95% CI; 10.0-19.7) but not significantly different from that among men (18.7%; 95% CI; 12.5-26.3) (χ2=0.76, P=0.38). Having more than 2 sexual partners increased the odds of HIV by almost 2.5 times. None or low education and age over 35 years were independently associated with HIV prevalence (P<0.05). Most participants attributed the high HIV prevalence to promiscuity/multiple sexual partners (32.5%), followed by prostitution (13.6%), alcoholism (10.1%), carelessness (10.1%), poverty (9.7%), ignorance (9.5%)), rape (4.7%), drug abuse (3.6%) and others (malice/malevolence, laziness, etc.) (6.2%). Although there was a slight decline compared to previous reports, the results from this study confirm that HIV prevalence is still high in this community. In order to prevent new infections, the factors mentioned above need to be addressed, and we recommend that education aimed at changing individual behavior should be intensified in this community. © J. Rubaihayo et al., 2010.

Crabtree M.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kading R.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Mutebi J.-P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Lutwama J.J.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Miller B.R.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2013

Emerging infectious disease events are frequently caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that are maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arthropod vectors and vertebrate wildlife species, with spillover to humans in areas where human and wildlife populations interface. The greater Congo basin region, including Uganda, has historically been a hot spot for emergence of known and novel arboviruses. Surveillance of arthropod vectors is a critical activity in monitoring and predicting outbreaks of arboviral disease, and identification of blood meals in engorged arthropods collected during surveillance efforts provides insight into the ecology of arboviruses and their vectors. As part of an ongoing arbovirus surveillance project we analyzed blood meals from engorged mosquitoes collected at five sites in western Uganda November 2008-June 2010. We extracted DNA from the dissected and triturated abdomens of engorged mosquito specimens. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the source of the mosquito host blood. Blood meals were analyzed from 533 engorged mosquito specimens; 440 of these blood meals were successfully identified from 33 mosquito species. Species identifications were made for 285 of the 440 identified specimens with the remainder identified to genus, family, or order. When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. © Wildlife Disease Association 2013.

Ruzagira E.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Wandiembe S.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Abaasa A.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Levin J.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Local HIV epidemiology data are critical in determining the suitability of a population for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of, and determine risk factors for HIV transmission in a rural community-based HIV vaccine preparedness cohort in Masaka, Uganda. Methods: Between February and July 2004, we conducted a house-to-house HIV sero-prevalence survey among consenting individuals aged 18-60 years. Participants were interviewed, counseled and asked to provide blood for HIV testing. We then enrolled the HIV uninfected participants in a 2-year HIV sero-incidence study. Medical evaluations, HIV counseling and testing, and sample collection for laboratory analysis were done quarterly. Sexual risk behaviour data was collected every 6 months. Results: The HIV point prevalence was 11.2%, and was higher among women than men (12.9% vs. 8.6%, P = 0.007). Risk factors associated with prevalent HIV infection for men were age <25 years (aOR = 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.35) and reported genital ulcer disease in the past year (aOR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.23-3.83). Among women, being unmarried (aOR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.75-3.83) and reported genital ulcer disease in the past year (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI 1.64-3.51) were associated with prevalent HIV infection. Twenty-one seroconversions were recorded over 2025.8 person-years, an annual HIV incidence of 1.04% (95% CI: 0.68-1.59). The only significant risk factor for incident HIV infection was being unmarried (aRR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.43-8.28). Cohort retention after 2 years was 87%. Conclusions: We found a high prevalence but low incidence of HIV in this cohort. HIV vaccine efficacy trials in this population may not be feasible due to the large sample sizes that would be required. HIV vaccine preparatory efforts in this setting should include identification of higher risk populations. © 2011 Ruzagira et al.

Mutebi J.-P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Crabtree M.B.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kading R.C.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Powers A.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2012

The mosquito fauna in many areas of western Uganda has never been studied and is currently unknown. One area, Bwamba County, has been previously studied and documented but the species lists have not been updated for >40 yr. This paucity of data makes it difficult to determine which arthropod-borne viruses pose a risk to human or animal populations. Using CO2 baited-light traps, from 2008 through 2010, 67,731 mosquitoes were captured at five locations in western Uganda including Mweya, Sempaya, Maramagambo, Bwindi (BINP), and Kibale (KNP). Overall, 88 mosquito species, 7 subspecies, and 7 species groups in 10 genera were collected. The largest number of species was collected at Sempaya (65 species), followed by Maramagambo (45), Mweya (34), BINP (33), and KNP (22). However, species diversity was highest in BINP (Simpson's Diversity Index 1-D = 0.85), followed by KNP (0.80), Maramagambo (0.79), Sempaya (0.67), and Mweya (0.56). Only six species Aedes (Aedimorphus) cumminsii (Theobald), Aedes (Neomelaniconion) circumluteolus (Theobald), Culex (Culex) antennatus (Becker), Culex (Culex) decens group, Culex (Lutzia) tigripes De Grandpre and De Charmoy, and Culex (Oculeomyia) annulions (Theobald), were collected from all five sites suggesting large differences in species composition among sites. Four species (Aedes (Stegomyia) metallicus (Edwards), Anopheles (Cellia) rivulorum Leeson, Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) chorleyi (Edwards), and Uranotaenia (Uranotaenia) pallidocephala (Theobald) and one subspecies (Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti formosus (Walker)) were collected in Bwamba County for the first time. This study represents the first description of the mosquito species composition of Mweya, Maramagambo, BINP, and KNP. A number of morphological variations were noted regarding the postspiracular scales, hind tibia, and sternites that make Culex (Culex) neavei (Theobald) challenging to identify. At least 50 species collected in this study have previously been implicated in the transmission of arboviruses of public health importance suggesting a high potential for maintenance and transmission of a wide variety of arboviruses in western Uganda.

PubMed | University of Witwatersrand, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of York, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care | Year: 2015

Anemia is a common problem in HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the contribution of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen to the incidence of anemia and changes in hemoglobin (Hb) in HIV-infected patients in Uganda.This study was nested in a prevention of cryptococcal disease trial (CRYPTOPRO; ISCRTN7648152). Patients received 3 different backbones of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in a nonrandomized manner.Of the 852 patients (161 on zidovudine [ZDV], 628 on stavudine [d4T], and 63 on tenofovir [TDF]; all received lamuvidine), the risk of developing grade 4 anemia was higher (adjusted hazard ratio 2.7) for those receiving ZDV than those receiving d4T. Those receivingd4T had a higher average increase in Hb than those receiving ZDV (P = .024) or TDF (P = .014).In this observational study, ZDV was associated with severe anemia compared to d4T or TDF; those receiving ZDV and TDF had smaller increases in Hb after ART initiation. We encourage publication of data on cohorts using TDF from Africa.

Kasamba I.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Sully E.,Princeton University | Weiss H.A.,Princeton University | Baisley K.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes | Year: 2011

Background: The role of concurrent sexual partnerships in the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Although most infections in Africa occur among married individuals, transmission may occur from both spousal and extraspousal partnerships. This article explores extraspousal partnerships as a form of concurrency, examining the association with HIV status, demographic characteristics, and sexual behaviors in a population-based cohort in rural Uganda. Methods: Prevalence of extraspousal partnerships was estimated using cross-sectional data from 2008, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were estimated for factors associated with the prevalence of extraspousal partnerships using logistic regression. Among men who were not in polygynous marriages, we used linked spousal data to investigate the association between extraspousal partnerships and wives' serostatus. Results: Extraspousal partnerships in the past year were reported by 17% of married men and 2% of married women. Among both men and women, extraspousal partnerships were associated with not knowing their partners' HIV status (men: aOR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.67; women: aOR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.13 to 2.75), and extraspousal partnerships were also associated with increased condom use for men. There was no evidence that men reporting extraspousal partnerships were at increased risk of HIV (aOR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.48 to 2.01), or that a woman's risk of HIV was associated with her husband reporting extraspousal partnerships (aOR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.57). Conclusions: For both men and women, extraspousal partnerships were associated with not knowing their partners' HIV status. There was no evidence of an association of extraspousal partnerships with HIV serostatus in this cross-sectional analysis. Copyright © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Biraro S.,Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI | Biraro S.,MRC Tropical Epidemiology Group | Mayaud P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Morrow R.A.,University of Washington | And 3 more authors.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Several commercial type-specific serologic tests are available for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Poor specificity of some tests has been reported on samples from sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: To summarize the performance of the tests using samples from sub-Saharan Africa, we conducted a systematic review of publications reporting performance of commercially available HSV-2 tests against a gold standard (Western Blot or monoclonal antibody-blocking EIA). We used random-effects meta-analyses to summarize sensitivity and specificity of the 2 most commonly evaluated tests, Kalon gG2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Focus HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA. Results: We identified 10 eligible articles that included 21 studies of the performance of Focus, and 12 of Kalon. The primary analyses included studies using the manufacturersÊ cut-offs (index value = 1.1). Focus had high sensitivity (random effects summary estimate 99%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 99%-100%) but low specificity (69%, 95% CI: 59%-80%). Kalon had sensitivity of 95% (95% CI: 93%-97%) and specificity of 91% (95% CI: 86%-95%). Specificity of Focus was significantly lower (P = 0.002) among HIV-positive (54%, 95% CI: 40%-68%) than HIV-negative individuals (69%, 95% CI: 56%-82%). When the cut-off optical density index was increased above the recommended value of 1.1 to between 2.2 and 3.5, the specificity of Focus increased to 85% (95% CI: 77%-92%). Conclusions: Sensitivity and specificity of HSV-2 tests used in sub-Saharan Africa vary by setting, and are lower than reported from studies in the United States and Europe. Increasing the cut-off optical density index may improve test performance. Evaluation of test performance in a given setting may help deciding which test is most appropriate. Copyright © 2011 American Sexually Transmitted Diseases All rights reserved.

PubMed | University of British Columbia, Makerere University and Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI
Type: | Journal: Alcohol and alcoholism (Oxford, Oxfordshire) | Year: 2016

Despite increased use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in sub-Saharan Africa, few studies have assessed its underlying conceptual framework, and none have done so in post-conflict settings. Further, significant inconsistencies exist between definitions used for problematic consumption. Such is the case in Uganda, facing one of the highest per-capita alcohol consumption levels regionally, which is thought to be hindering rebuilding in the North after two decades of civil war. This study explores the impact of varying designation cutoff thresholds in the AUDIT as well as its conceptual factor structure in a representative sample of the population.In all, 1720 Cango Lyec Project participants completed socio-economic and mental health questionnaires, provided blood samples and took the AUDIT. Participant characteristics and consumption designations were compared at AUDIT summary score thresholds of 3, 5 and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) explored one-, two- and three-factor level models overall and by sex with relative and absolute fit indicators.There were no significant differences in participant demographic characteristics between thresholds. At higher cutoffs, the test increased in specificity to identify those with hazardous drinking, disordered drinking and suffering from alcohol-related harms. All conceptual models indicated good fit, with three-factor models superior overall and within both sexes.In Northern Uganda, a three-factor AUDIT model best explores alcohol use in the population and is appropriate for use in both sexes. Lower cutoff thresholds are recommended to identify those with potentially disordered drinking to best plan effective interventions and treatments.A CFA of the AUDIT showed good fit for one-, two, and three-factor models overall and by sex in a representative sample in post-conflict Northern Uganda. A three-plus total AUDIT cutoff score is suggested to screen for hazardous drinking in this or similar populations.

Abstract. Background. The global financial crisis threatens global health, particularly exacerbating diseases of inequality, e.g. HIV/AIDS, and diseases of poverty, e.g. tuberculosis. The aim of this paper is to reconsider established practices and policies for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, aiming at delivering better results and value for money. This may be achieved by promoting greater integration of HIV and tuberculosis control programme activities within a strengthened health system. Discussion. HIV and tuberculosis share many similarities in terms of their disease burden and the recommended stratagems for their control. HIV and tuberculosis programmes implement similar sorts of control activities, e.g. case finding and treatment, which depend for success on generic health system issues, including vital registration, drug procurement and supply, laboratory network, human resources, and financing. However, the current health system approach to HIV and tuberculosis control often involves separate specialised services. Despite some recent progress, collaboration between the programmes remains inadequate, progress in obtaining synergies has been slow, and results remain far below those needed to achieve universal access to key interventions. A fundamental re-think of the current strategic approach involves promoting integrated delivery of HIV and tuberculosis programme activities as part of strengthened general health services: epidemiological surveillance, programme monitoring and evaluation, community awareness of health-seeking behavior, risk behaviour modification, infection control, treatment scale-up (first-line treatment regimens), drug-resistance surveillance, containing and countering drug-resistance (second-line treatment regimens), research and development, global advocacy and global partnership. Health agencies should review policies and progress in HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control, learn mutual lessons for policy development and scaling up interventions, and identify ways of joint planning and joint funding of integrated delivery as part of strengthened health systems. Summary. As both a danger and an opportunity, the global financial crisis may entail disaster or recovery for global health sector efforts for HIV and tuberculosis epidemic control. Review of policies and progress in control paves the way for identification of synergies between the two programmes, within strengthened health services. The silver lining in the global economic crisis could be better control of the HIV and tuberculosis epidemics, better overall health system performance and outcomes, and better value for money. © 2010 Maher; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | World Health Organization and Uganda Virus Research Institute UVRI
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical virology | Year: 2015

A retrospective study to identify VAPP cases from the entire Uganda was conducted between January 2003 and December 2011. Eleven of the 106 AFP cases were VAPPs. The VAPP rate ranged from 0 to 3.39 cases per 1,000,000 birth cohorts and the peak was in 2009 when there was scaling up of OPV immunization activities following an importation of wild poliovirus in the country. All the subsequent polio suspect cases since then have been vaccine-associated polio cases. Our data support the strategy to withdraw OPV and introduce IPV progressively in order to mitigate against the paralysis arising from Sabin polioviruses.

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