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Masa J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Masa J.,Kyambogo University | Ogwok P.,Kyambogo University | Muyonga J.H.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology | Year: 2011

Fish oils may differ in fatty acid (FA) composition depending on diet. Oils extracted from muscle, liver, and adipose tissue of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), silver fish (Rastrineobola argentea), lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), Victoria squeaker (Synodontis victoriae), and two catfishes (Clarias gariepinus and Bagrus docmac) from Lake Victoria, a tropical freshwater lake, were evaluated for FA composition. Oil contents of muscles, livers, and adipose tissues were in the range of 3.16 to 13.8%, 3.62 to 53.4%, and 28.8 to 42.4%, respectively. Omega-3 polyunsaturated FA, particularly alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, were found to be in substantial amounts in oils from all seven fish species. Ratios of polyunsaturated FA to saturated FA (0.79 to 1.18) were in the range considered adequate for normal health. Overall, the results show that the fish species studied are a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated FA. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kukeera T.,Makerere University | Banadda N.,Makerere University | Tumutegyereize P.,Makerere University | Kiggundu N.,Makerere University | Asuman R.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2015

A quantification and characterization study of oil from pumpkin seeds was carried out on three pumpkin varieties, namely, Japanese type of the Curcubita maxima species, Green Kabocha and butternut squash of the Cucurbita moschanta species. Oil extraction was done using the Soxhlet method with petroleum ether as the solvent. The physicochemical properties of acid value, iodine value, specific gravity and refractive index were determined. The results were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance. The mean values of oil content, acid value, iodine value, specific gravity and refractive index for Japanese type pumpkin were found to be 35.67%, 2.24 mg KOH/g, 26.45 mg I2/100 g, 0.9126 and 1.47, respectively. For Green Kabocha, the mean values of the above five properties were 30.12%, 3.35 mg KOH/g, 25.3 mg I2/100 g, 0.9126 and 1.469, respectively. For the Butternut squash type the mean values of the above five properties were 34.76%, 3.74 mg KOH/g, 26.61 mg I2, 0.9131 and 1.471, respectively. It can be noted that from the low acid values of the pumpkin oil, pumpkin oil can be identified as edible. Also the low iodine value indicated that the pumpkin oil was non-drying. In addition, the low iodine value also suggested that the oil contains few unsaturated bonds and therefore has low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity. With a comparison of extraction rates from other oil sources in Uganda such as cotton (15%-20%), soybeans (19%-21%), the obtained results in this study suggested that pumpkin seeds are a viable source of vegetable oils that can be utilized for commercial vegetable oil extraction in Uganda. © 2014 Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All Rights reserved. Source


Usanzineza D.,National University of Rwanda | Nhapi I.,National University of Rwanda | Wali U.G.,National University of Rwanda | Kashaigili J.J.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Banadda N.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to assess the water quality in Lake Muhazi and its tributary rivers, focusing on nutrients. Parameters studied were nitrogen, phosphorous, chlorophyll-a, pH, temperature and transparency. Samples were collected at depths of 0.5m, 2m, 5m from the surface and 1m from the bottom of the Lake at the four sampling stations. Samples were collected using Van Dorn Bottle water sampler, and were preserved and analyzed in the laboratory for TP, TN and chlorophyll-a. The temperature, transparency (Secchi disc), and pH were measured. The results revealed that the levels of nutrient in the Lake are higher. The total nitrogen was 0.85±0.22mg/L, total phosphorus 0.29 ±0.15mg/L, chlorophyll-a 18.1±10.5_g/L, and Secchi disc 0.76±0.07m. The results indicate the Lake is undergoing eutrophic. The study recommends conducting appropriate catchment management interventions to reduce nutrient inflows into the Lake and the development of suitable discharge standards for all Lakeshore activities. © 2011 IJED. Source


Zhang Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi M.,Harbin Medical University | Sun J.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Yang C.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Brain activity can be monitored non-invasively by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has several advantages in comparison with other methods, such as flexibility, portability, low cost and fewer physical restrictions. However, in practice fNIRS measurements are often contaminated by physiological interference arising from cardiac contraction, breathing and blood pressure fluctuations, thereby severely limiting the utility of the method. Hence, further improvement is necessary to reduce or eliminate such interference in order that the evoked brain activity information can be extracted reliably from fNIRS data. In the present paper, the multi-distance fNIRS probe configuration has been adopted. The short-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the virtual channel and the long-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the measurement channel. Independent component analysis (ICA) is employed for the fNIRS recordings to separate the brain signals and the interference. Least-absolute deviation (LAD) estimator is employed to recover the brain activity signals. We also utilized Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer model of the adult human head to evaluate our methodology. The results demonstrate that the ICA algorithm has the potential to separate physiological interference in fNIRS data and the LAD estimator could be a useful criterion to recover the brain activity signals. © 2015 SPIE. Source


Muhirwa D.,National University of Rwanda | Nhapi I.,University of Zimbabwe | Wali U.G.,National University of Rwanda | Banadda N.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2010

This study analyzed processes and products at Nyabugogo Abattoir in Kigali, Rwanda, and investigated how they can be optimized for environmental safety. The average capacity of the abattoir is 566 cattle and 1,512 goats and sheep slaughtered per week. The study assessed the quantity and quality of different raw materials, by-products and wastewater streams and the potential impacts of applying cleaner production principles in abattoir processes. The samples were collected fortnightly, and analyzed using Standard Methods. The analysis emphasized on nutrients, biologically active constituents, and receiving water impacts. The data were processed for trends and variance using SPSS computer package. The wastewater parameters analyzed are temperature, salinity, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen pH, TSS, TDS, BOD5, COD, fat oils and grease, NO3-N, TKN, total phosphorus, chloride, calcium and total coliforms. The findings showed that the abattoir wastewater streams' total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from (7,533±723) for evisceration to (23,778±1,673) mgl-1 from slaughtering step and the discharge into Mpazi River increased its TCOD from (213±29) to (852±94) mgl-1. The TSS varied between 2,452±51 from the slaughter process and 5,252±174 mgl-1 for the effluent from the goat and sheep slaughter section. Results from the bacteriological analysis showed that the average abattoir wastewater discharge count was (560±81)105 cfu/100ml of total coliforms which increased from (2.8±0.58)105 to (8.2±0.86)105 cfu/100 ml. It was concluded that the current effluent quality is not suitable for discharge into watercourses. It was recommended that further treatment of the effluent is required coupled with the application of cleaner production principles. © 2010 IJED (CESER Publications). Source

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