Uganda Industrial Research Institute

Kampala, Uganda

Uganda Industrial Research Institute

Kampala, Uganda
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Ndyabawe K.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Ndyabawe K.,University of Georgia | Kisaalita W.S.,University of Georgia | Kisaalita W.S.,Makerere University
Technology in Society | Year: 2014

In many sub-Saharan countries' dairy industries, the evening milk is either wasted or processed into low-value products because it is highly perishable and cannot be kept fresh until the next morning, when it is safe to travel (no access to electricity and night travel is unsafe). To save this milk, a "bottom of the economic pyramid" solution in a low capacity (15.5L), evaporative cooler has been developed and its performance has been assessed while initiating its diffusion among smallholder dairy farmers of Western Uganda. The cooler successfully preserved the milk over 24h period with acceptable quality in terms of the Resazurin test scale. Although the rate of the cooler innovation diffusion was found consistent with other diffusion studies in rural settings, interviews of participants suggested that a larger capacity cooler (50-100L) and on-farm regeneration with biogas will accelerate the diffusion rate, affirming that at the micro-level, societal shaping of technology is indispensable to successful diffusion. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Muhirwa D.,National University of Rwanda | Nhapi I.,University of Zimbabwe | Wali U.G.,National University of Rwanda | Banadda N.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2010

This study analyzed processes and products at Nyabugogo Abattoir in Kigali, Rwanda, and investigated how they can be optimized for environmental safety. The average capacity of the abattoir is 566 cattle and 1,512 goats and sheep slaughtered per week. The study assessed the quantity and quality of different raw materials, by-products and wastewater streams and the potential impacts of applying cleaner production principles in abattoir processes. The samples were collected fortnightly, and analyzed using Standard Methods. The analysis emphasized on nutrients, biologically active constituents, and receiving water impacts. The data were processed for trends and variance using SPSS computer package. The wastewater parameters analyzed are temperature, salinity, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen pH, TSS, TDS, BOD5, COD, fat oils and grease, NO3-N, TKN, total phosphorus, chloride, calcium and total coliforms. The findings showed that the abattoir wastewater streams' total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ranged from (7,533±723) for evisceration to (23,778±1,673) mgl-1 from slaughtering step and the discharge into Mpazi River increased its TCOD from (213±29) to (852±94) mgl-1. The TSS varied between 2,452±51 from the slaughter process and 5,252±174 mgl-1 for the effluent from the goat and sheep slaughter section. Results from the bacteriological analysis showed that the average abattoir wastewater discharge count was (560±81)105 cfu/100ml of total coliforms which increased from (2.8±0.58)105 to (8.2±0.86)105 cfu/100 ml. It was concluded that the current effluent quality is not suitable for discharge into watercourses. It was recommended that further treatment of the effluent is required coupled with the application of cleaner production principles. © 2010 IJED (CESER Publications).

Zhang Y.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Shi M.,Harbin Medical University | Sun J.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Yang C.,Harbin Institute of Technology | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Brain activity can be monitored non-invasively by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), which has several advantages in comparison with other methods, such as flexibility, portability, low cost and fewer physical restrictions. However, in practice fNIRS measurements are often contaminated by physiological interference arising from cardiac contraction, breathing and blood pressure fluctuations, thereby severely limiting the utility of the method. Hence, further improvement is necessary to reduce or eliminate such interference in order that the evoked brain activity information can be extracted reliably from fNIRS data. In the present paper, the multi-distance fNIRS probe configuration has been adopted. The short-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the virtual channel and the long-distance fNIRS measurement is treated as the measurement channel. Independent component analysis (ICA) is employed for the fNIRS recordings to separate the brain signals and the interference. Least-absolute deviation (LAD) estimator is employed to recover the brain activity signals. We also utilized Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer model of the adult human head to evaluate our methodology. The results demonstrate that the ICA algorithm has the potential to separate physiological interference in fNIRS data and the LAD estimator could be a useful criterion to recover the brain activity signals. © 2015 SPIE.

Ssekitoleko S.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Niyitanga P.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Ocheng M.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Makobore P.N.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Rolfe P.,Harbin Institute of Technology
IEEE AFRICON Conference | Year: 2015

An electronically regulated, gravity-feed, intravenous infusion set in which a length of intravenous tubing is attached to a drip chamber to deliver a fluid to be administered intravenously. A contraption for monitoring drop flow in the chamber of the intravenous set incorporates a sensor housing containing a reference light source located a fixed distance from a photocell to define a fixed optical sensing gap there between, with a reference light beam normally impinging upon the photocell. The casing can be selectively fastened upon the drip chamber with the drip chamber set within the sensing gap to intercept the reference light beam. The rate of fluid flow is controlled by a non-invasive actuator attached to the intravenous tubing. A round spherical tip attached to a linear actuator stepper motor (constituents of the actuator) is adjusted with reference to a calibrated scale in accordance to feedback from the drop flow sensor. The system regulates fluid flow with an agreeable degree of accuracy (±1 count). © 2015 IEEE.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRASUPP-03-2016 | Award Amount: 992.25K | Year: 2017

The project aims at creating an EU-Africa e-Infrastructure, UBORA, for open source co-design of new solutions to face the current and future healthcare challenges of both continents, by exploiting networking, knowledge on rapid prototyping of new ideas and sharing of safety criteria and performance data. The e-infrastructure will foster advances in education and the development of innovative solutions in Biomedical Engineering (BME), both of which are flywheels for European and African economies. It is conceived as a virtual platform for generating, exchanging, improving and implementing creative ideas in BME underpinned by a solid safety assessment framework. Besides the provision of resources with designs, blueprints and support on safety assessment and harmonisation, specific sections for needs identification, project management, repositories and fund raising are also foreseen. UBORA (excellence in Swahili) brings together European and African Universities and their associated technological hubs (supporting biomedical prototyping laboratories and incubators), national and international policymakers and committed and credible stakeholders propelled by a series of Summer Schools and Competitions. In a nutshell, UBORA couples the open design philosophy with Europes leadership in quality control and safety assurance, guaranteeing better health and new opportunities for growth and innovation.

Masa J.,Ruhr University Bochum | Masa J.,Kyambogo University | Ogwok P.,Kyambogo University | Muyonga J.H.,Makerere University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology | Year: 2011

Fish oils may differ in fatty acid (FA) composition depending on diet. Oils extracted from muscle, liver, and adipose tissue of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), silver fish (Rastrineobola argentea), lungfish (Protopterus aethiopicus), Victoria squeaker (Synodontis victoriae), and two catfishes (Clarias gariepinus and Bagrus docmac) from Lake Victoria, a tropical freshwater lake, were evaluated for FA composition. Oil contents of muscles, livers, and adipose tissues were in the range of 3.16 to 13.8%, 3.62 to 53.4%, and 28.8 to 42.4%, respectively. Omega-3 polyunsaturated FA, particularly alpha-linolenic (ALA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, were found to be in substantial amounts in oils from all seven fish species. Ratios of polyunsaturated FA to saturated FA (0.79 to 1.18) were in the range considered adequate for normal health. Overall, the results show that the fish species studied are a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated FA. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Kukeera T.,Makerere University | Banadda N.,Makerere University | Tumutegyereize P.,Makerere University | Kiggundu N.,Makerere University | Asuman R.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2015

A quantification and characterization study of oil from pumpkin seeds was carried out on three pumpkin varieties, namely, Japanese type of the Curcubita maxima species, Green Kabocha and butternut squash of the Cucurbita moschanta species. Oil extraction was done using the Soxhlet method with petroleum ether as the solvent. The physicochemical properties of acid value, iodine value, specific gravity and refractive index were determined. The results were analyzed statistically using one way ANOVA at a 5% level of significance. The mean values of oil content, acid value, iodine value, specific gravity and refractive index for Japanese type pumpkin were found to be 35.67%, 2.24 mg KOH/g, 26.45 mg I2/100 g, 0.9126 and 1.47, respectively. For Green Kabocha, the mean values of the above five properties were 30.12%, 3.35 mg KOH/g, 25.3 mg I2/100 g, 0.9126 and 1.469, respectively. For the Butternut squash type the mean values of the above five properties were 34.76%, 3.74 mg KOH/g, 26.61 mg I2, 0.9131 and 1.471, respectively. It can be noted that from the low acid values of the pumpkin oil, pumpkin oil can be identified as edible. Also the low iodine value indicated that the pumpkin oil was non-drying. In addition, the low iodine value also suggested that the oil contains few unsaturated bonds and therefore has low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity. With a comparison of extraction rates from other oil sources in Uganda such as cotton (15%-20%), soybeans (19%-21%), the obtained results in this study suggested that pumpkin seeds are a viable source of vegetable oils that can be utilized for commercial vegetable oil extraction in Uganda. © 2014 Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All Rights reserved.

Wacoo A.P.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Wacoo A.P.,Makerere University | Ocheng M.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Wendiro D.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sensors | Year: 2016

An electroless plated silver/cysteine sensor platform [Glass|silver|cysteine|aflatoxin B1|horseradish peroxidase] for the Electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 was developed and characterized. This involved four major steps: (1) an electroless deposition of silver (plating) onto a glass slide, (2) immobilization of cysteine; (3) conjugation of aflatoxin B1 to cysteine groups; and (4) blocking of free cysteine groups with horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The binding of cysteine to the silver was demonstrated by the disappearance of thiol (S-H) groups at 2500 cm-1 using Fourier transmittance infrared spectra (FT-IR), while the subsequent steps in the assembly of sensor platform were monitored using both FT-IR and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The sensor platform exhibited a broadened nonsymmetrical redox couple as indicated by cyclic voltammetry. The platform was further characterized for sensitivity and limit of detection. The indirect competitive immunoassay format, whereby free and immobilized aflatoxin B1 on the sensor competed for the binding site of free anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody, was used at various concentrations of aflatoxin B1. The sensor generated differential staircase voltammogram that was inversely proportional to the concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in the range of 0.06-1.1 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.08 ng/mL could be detected. © 2016 Alex Paul Wacoo et al.

Wembabazi E.,Makerere University | Mugisha P.J.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Ratibu A.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | Wendiro D.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Spectroscopy | Year: 2015

The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) technique. Acidic sulphonate (-SO3H) groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5%) than sulphonated saw dust (46.6%) during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p = 0.05). The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000°C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000°C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8%) from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products. © 2015 Enoch Wembabazi et al.

Usanzineza D.,National University of Rwanda | Nhapi I.,National University of Rwanda | Wali U.G.,National University of Rwanda | Kashaigili J.J.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Banadda N.,Uganda Industrial Research Institute
International Journal of Ecology and Development | Year: 2011

The purpose of this study was to assess the water quality in Lake Muhazi and its tributary rivers, focusing on nutrients. Parameters studied were nitrogen, phosphorous, chlorophyll-a, pH, temperature and transparency. Samples were collected at depths of 0.5m, 2m, 5m from the surface and 1m from the bottom of the Lake at the four sampling stations. Samples were collected using Van Dorn Bottle water sampler, and were preserved and analyzed in the laboratory for TP, TN and chlorophyll-a. The temperature, transparency (Secchi disc), and pH were measured. The results revealed that the levels of nutrient in the Lake are higher. The total nitrogen was 0.85±0.22mg/L, total phosphorus 0.29 ±0.15mg/L, chlorophyll-a 18.1±10.5_g/L, and Secchi disc 0.76±0.07m. The results indicate the Lake is undergoing eutrophic. The study recommends conducting appropriate catchment management interventions to reduce nutrient inflows into the Lake and the development of suitable discharge standards for all Lakeshore activities. © 2011 IJED.

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