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The study aimed to evaluate the incidence of biological and physiological disorders in the field and postharvested apples cvs. Gala, Fuji and Catarina grown in four production systems: conventional, organic transition, integrated and organic. Apples were evaluated for damages related to biological and physiological disorders in the orchard and after harvest. The greatest damages were attributed to pests, especially Anastrepha fraterculus in the organic system and Grapholita molesta in the organic transition. Apples produced in organic orchards had higher damage levels caused by postharvest physiological disorders than those grown in other production systems. For apples becoming from organic orchards most of the damage was due to lenticels breakdown and degeneration ('Gala'), and bitter pit ('Fuji' and 'Catarina'). The incidence of postharvest rot was not influenced by apple production system.

da Silva K.R.G.,FAEM UFPel | Villela F.A.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
Revista Brasileira de Sementes | Year: 2011

Soybean seeds submitted to rapid hydration may be damaged by imbibitions with the intensity depending on the seed cultivar and initial moisture content. The present study evaluated physiological changes measured by pre-hydration methods to minimize damage by imbibition. Three lots of each soybean cultivar, CD 202 and CD 215, of uniform size, were evaluated for their moisture content, germination, germination first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seedling emergence in the field. The moisture contents of seeds were adjusted to 7.5, 10.5 and 13.5%. The seeds were pre-hydrated in a saturated atmosphere and moist substrate for four to six hours and then evaluated for electrical conductivity after 24 hours, and also for germination and field seedling emergence. Pre-hydration treatments in a saturated atmosphere and on a moist substrate for four to six hours effectively reduced damage to seeds with a low moisture content, especially for the CD 202 cultivar. However, pre-hydration on a moist substrate for six hours was more efficient for both genotypes, with fewer solutes leached, and confirmed by a lower value observed for the electrical conductivity test. This resulted in an improved performance in germination tests and seedling emergence in the field.

Lauxen L.R.,UFPel FAEM | Villela F.A.,FAEM UFPel | Soares R.C.,UFPel FAEM
Revista Brasileira de Sementes | Year: 2010

The introduction of new seed treatment products is increasing and bioactivators, such as the insecticide thiametoxam, are used to increase plant yield potential by modifying metabolism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiametoxam on the physiological quality of cotton seeds, particularly on seedling root growth, and establish product concentrations for seed pre-treatment. Three seed lots of the cultivar CD 408 were evaluated which had been treated with six dosages of Cruiser® 350 FS containing 35 g/L A.I. of thiametoxam, at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mL per kg of seeds. Parameters measured included: standard germination test, germination first count, accelerated ageing, root dry matter and length, emergence velocity rate and final seedling emergence. Cotton seeds treated with thiametoxam demonstrated improved physiological quality of the seeds and the dosages of 5.0 to 7.0 mL of the Cruiser® 350 FS/kg of seeds were more efficient in improving the physiological performance of cotton seeds.

Fachinello J.C.,FAEM UFPel | de Franceschi E.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2012

Pears are the most imported fruit in Brazil, thus its cultivation may represent an important opportunity to Brazilian growers. however, there are still some problems that restrict pear production, such as the lack of adapted rootstocks. The aims of this study were to assess growth, yield and fruit quality of two pear cultivars: Carrick grafted on quinces 'Portugal', 'MC', 'BA29', 'D'vranja' and 'inta 267' and Packham's Triumph grafted on 'Adam's', 'D'Angers', 'Alongado', 'Smyrna' and Pyrus calleryana. in a completely randomized block design, with 3 replicates per treatment, a 2-year (2009-10) experiment was carried out in a 7-year old pear orchard, trained on central leader, at 1.0x5.0 m spacing, at the Centro Agropecuário da Palma, FAEM/UFPel. The assessed parameters were trunk cross sectional area, yield efficiency, yield, cumulative yield, fruit number per tree, total soluble solids, flesh firmness, fruit weight and fruit diameter. The yield of 'Carrick' and 'Packham's Triumph' was increased when quince rootstocks 'Portugal' and 'MC'; 'Adams' and 'D'Angers' were adopted, respectively. Moreover, it was found that yield and yield efficiency of both cultivars generally was inversely proportional to the vigor induced by the rootstock. Fruits of 'Carrick' and 'Packham's Triumph' cultivars accumulated higher amounts of soluble solids when grafted on dwarfing rootstocks.

E Silva O.A.B.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Botton M.,Pesquisador Embrapa Uva e Vinho | Garcia M.S.,FAEM UFPel | da Silva A.,FAEM UFPel
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

The objective of this study were to evaluate the effect of insecticides insect growth regulators (IGR's) on eggs, larvae and adults of G. molesta, in the laboratory. The evaluated insecticides were Lufenuron and Novaluron (4.0g of a.i. 100L-1), Methoxyfenozide and Tebufenozide (9.6g of a.i. 100L-1) and control (distilled water). In application before oviposition, only Methoxyfenozide caused significant mortality of eggs (26.3%) compared to control. The application of insecticides on eggs of different ages (24, 48 and 72 hours) showed variations in mortality of the species regarding the insecticide and time of embryonic development. Only Methoxyfenozide and Novaluron reduced the viability of larvae that emerged from treated eggs, with a maximum of 35.9% and 39.5 of larval viability when applied on eggs of 48-72 hours, respectively. The treatment of apple fruit with insecticides caused significant mortality of larvae, but no differences were observed among insecticides, both for small larvae (average efficiency of 47.2%) and for 3rd -4th instar larvae (averaging 45.3%). Lufenuron reduced its efficacy on 3rd-4th instar larvae. The ingestion of Lufenuron, Methoxyfenozide, Novaluron and Tebufenozide by adults of G. molesta reduced fecundity and fertility, however the adult longevity was only negatively affected by the ingestion of Methoxyfenozide and Tebufenozide.

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