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São Luís, Brazil

Lopes C.S.D.,State University Londrina | de Azevedo P.S.,UFMA
Environment, Development and Sustainability | Year: 2013

Despite more than 20 years of economic progress, especially in emerging economies like Brazil, the gap between developed and developing countries is still large, and environment problems have risen significantly. In this context, this paper aims to make the Brazilian furniture production cleaner, analyzing the environmental requirements considered by the micro and small enterprises (SMEs) in made-to-order furniture industry during the product development process (PDP). Another attempt was to identify the internal and external factors that led to the incorporation of these requirements. In this regard, a comprehensive review of eco-design concept that consists of composing environmental requirements into the PDP, through methods, tools, guidelines and techniques, was carried out. The data were collected using semi-structured interviews and in loco observations, analyzing each activity of the PDP and the environmental requirements on 18 SMEs in Brazil. The outcomes show that the economic factors determine the way in which the enterprises respond to the environmental issues and how adequate their companies according to laws and regulations. Moreover, the small number of qualified professionals in this field lead to difficulties to structure the sector, in other words, to produce with less environment impact. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Damos F.S.,University of Campinas | Damos F.S.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | Luz R.C.S.,University of Campinas | Luz R.C.S.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | And 3 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

The development of a simple, efficient and sensitive sensor for dissolved oxygen is proposed using the host-guest binding of a supramolecular complex at a host surface by combining a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of mono-(6-deoxy-6-mercapto)-β-cyclodextrin (βCDSH), iron (III) tetra-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin (FeTMPyP) and cyclodextrin-functionalized gold nanoparticles (CDAuNP). The supramolecular modified electrode showed excellent catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. The reduction potential of oxygen was shifted about 200mV toward less negative values with this modified electrode, presenting a peak current much higher than those observed on a bare gold electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode (RDE) experiments indicated that the oxygen reduction reaction involves probably 4-electrons with a rate constant (kobs) of 7×104mol-1Ls-1. A linear response range from 0.2 up to 6.5mgL-1, with a sensitivity of 5.5μALmg-1 (or 77.5μAcm-2Lmg-1) and a detection limit of 0.02mgL-1 was obtained with this sensor. The repeatability of the proposed sensor, evaluated in terms of relative standard deviation was 3.0% for 10 measurements of a solution of 6.5mgL-1 oxygen. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Da Silva Filho E.C.,Federal University of Piaui | Santana S.A.A.,UFMA | Melo J.C.P.,University of Campinas | Oliveira F.J.V.E.,University of Campinas | Airoldi C.,University of Campinas
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry | Year: 2010

Cellulose was chemically modified with SOCl2 to obtain chlorodeoxycellulose, followed by a reaction that gave bonded ethylene-1,2-diamine (en), producing 6-(2′-aminoethylamino)-6- deoxycellulose. The reactions were carried out without the presence of solvent, in water or in N,N′-dimethylformamide, in which the highest amount of amino compound was incorporated onto the biopolymer backbone. The X-ray diffraction patterns for the chlorodeoxycellulose indicate new crystallinities that result from hydrogen bonds established through bonded chorine atoms and the remaining hydroxyl groups, while all the aminodeoxycelluloses were amorphous compounds. Thermal stabilities, for all aminated celluloses gave lower final mass losses than for the chlorinated biopolymer, whose value is lower than unmodified cellulose. © 2009 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

The objective of this project is to focus on the environmental conflict involving the government and the residents of Jardim Icaraí in Curitiba, Brazil. This exercise examines environmental law as an instrument for producing and disseminating the "official version" of the environment and the city's intervention plan. Environmental Law not only provides legitimacy to this plan, but is also intimately associated to the urban policies in Curitiba.

Lamy Filho F.,Federal University of Maranhao | Da Silva A.A.M.,UFMA | Lopes J.M.A.,Instituto Fernandes Figueira | Lamy Z.C.,UFMA | And 2 more authors.
Jornal de Pediatria | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate a possible association between the intensity of staff workload and intermediate adverse events, such as accidental extubation, obstruction of the endotracheal tube, and accidental disconnection of the ventilator circuit, during neonatal mechanical ventilation in high-risk neonatal units. Method: This prospective cohort study analyzed data of 543 newborns from public neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the city of São Luís, state of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil, for 6 months, during which 136 newborns were submitted to mechanical ventilation in 1,108 shifts and were observed a total of 4,554 times. Results: Adverse events occurred 117 times during this period. The associations between workload and adverse events were analyzed by means of generalized estimating equations. The adjustment variables were: birth weight, gender, maternity unit, Clinical Risk Index for Babies score, and care demand, the latter measured by the Northern Neonatal Network Scale. The larger the number of newborns classified by care demand (NCCD) per nurse and nursing technician, the more likely the occurrence of intermediate adverse events linked to mechanical ventilation. A number of NCCD > 22 per nurse (relative risk [RR] = 2.86) and > 4.8 per auxiliary nurse (RR = 3.41) was associated with a higher prevalence of intermediate adverse events. Conclusions: The workload of NICU professionals seems to interfere with the intermediate results of neonatal care and thus should be taken into consideration when evaluating NICU outcomes. Copyright © 2011 by Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria.

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