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Correa P.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Botelho F.M.,UFMT | Botelho S.C.C.,Embrapa Agrossilvipastoril | Goneli A.L.D.,UFGD
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2014

The objectives of this study were to evaluate and to model the isotherms curves obtained by adsorption and desorption processes for the fruits of ripe (cherries) coffee (Coffea canephora), for different psychrometric conditions of the air. For all sorption processes, different conditions of temperature (between 10 and 50 °C) and relative humidity (between 10 and 95%) were used, until the product reached its equilibrium moisture content with the air condition specified. For experimental data of sorption, different mathematical models often use to represent hygroscopicity of agricultural products were adjusted. It was verified that the equilibrium moisture content of the fruits of coffee increased with relative humidity for a given temperature and decreased with increasing temperature for a given relative humidity. The hysteresis, regardless of temperature, was more pronounced for relative humidity of the air between 65 and 75%. The Sigma-Copace model was the best in describing hygroscopicity of the fruits of coffee both in desorption and adsorption. © 2014, Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved.

Serra A.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Marchetti M.E.,UFGD | da Candido A.C.S.,UFGD | Dias A.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Christoffoleti P.J.,University of Sao Paulo
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2011

After development of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean, there is a considerable raise in the use of this herbicide, with three to four applications during the culture cycle. Thus, these applications may be influencing the mineral nutrition of the crop. So, the aim of this research was evaluate the glyphosate influence on uptake, translocation and use efficiency of N, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe by (GR) soybean 'P98R31' cultivar. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2009. The experimental unit was formed by 11kg vase-1 of soil (Rhodic Paleudult) with two plants in each vase. The treatments have been arranged in a factorial pathway 5X5, with five levels of the factor Mn (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80mg dm -3) and five of glyphosate drifts (0; 0,648; 1,296; 1,944 e 2,592kg e.a. ha -1) and the Mn was supplied by the manganese sulfate (MnSO 4.H 2O). The experimental design was randomized blocks, with four repetitions. There was no influence on response from plants concerning the levels of Mn used into the experiment. The application of glyphosate interfered on mineral nutrition of soybean and the total contents of N, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe. The use of glyphosate has caused reduction of the nodules number and reduced the output of dry mass.

Machado S.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Santos R.C.,UFGS | Caldara F.R.,UFGD | Goncalves M.C.,UFGD | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PSE (Pale, Soft and Exudative) meat in pigs slaughtered in a commercial slaughterhouse located in the Mato Grosso do Sul, from May 2009 to July 2010. Based on a database (n = 854 carcasses), multiple logistic regression was applied for the purpose of developing a model to verify the effect of the selected variables on the probable risk of occurrence of PSE meat. Thus, the dependent variable was constructed through the identification of PSE meat in pig carcasses with pH45 values less than or equal to 5.8. In addition, the maximum likelihood method for estimation of parameters and the stepwise technique for selection of covariates were applied to obtain the model with the highest predictive ability. The variables selected with the greatest predictive capability were: carcass temperature, time of shipping, average speed during transport and the average resting time of the animals in the stalls. The obtained model presented predictive capability of 91.8%. © 2014, Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved.

The removal of the original vegetation and deployment of crops, combined with inadequate management practices, usually cause the deterioration of the physical and chemical quality of the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the physical and chemical attributes of a Typic Quartzipsamment from different land use systems and soil management. Four agroecosystems were selected: eucalyptus forest, extensive grazing, crop-livestock integration and integrated crop-livestock-forest, and an ecosystem preserved vegetation of native cerrado, located on Fazenda Modelo II in Ribas do Rio Pardo, MS. Soil samples were col-lected at depths of 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm in a completely randomized design, with six plots of 150 m2 on each system. The integrated crop-livestock and integrated crop-livestock-forest provided the biggest contribution in the improvement of soil fertility. There was an antagonistic relationship between physical and chemical soil as sustainability evaluation, and chemical attributes had to be more affected than physical. © 2015, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arid. All rights reserved.

Due to the devastation of the Cerrado areas, many native species are threatened with extinction, and due to the widespread use of Anadenanthera falcata, studies on the ecophysiology of seed germination and seedling growth are necessary. This study aimed to evaluate the priming and shading effects on the germination and early growth of angico seedlings. The seeds were pre-soaked in solutions with different concentrations of PEG and KNO3 and incubated at 10°C and 20°C for 12 and 24 hours. After these periods the seeds were dried until reaching the initial moisture levels, and subsequently incubated in BOD at the temperature of 20-30°C under photoperiods of 8h of light and 16h of dark. The control treatment and pre-conditioning with KNO3 (-1.0 MPa) and PEG (-1.0 MPa) presented the best germination results in BOD. The seeds were sown in trays and then transplanted to plastic packages, remaining in a greenhouse covered with 50% and 70% shading, in full sun. In BOD, the priming treatments decreased the germination of seeds. Under shade, the doses evaluated did not affect the emergence of angico, however, seeds treated with KNO3 (-1.0 MPa) had a greater EVI, in full sun and showed a better development when maintained up to 145 days of age.

The guavira present characteristic flavor and scent that are pleasant taste, and they can be eaten in natura or processed, present short life spam, even when stored in refrigerator. The objective of this work was to evaluate the post-harvest conservation of guavira at different temperatures and coatings. The fruit, harvested in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, received the following treatments: 1) and 2) immersion in a solution of chitosan (1% w/v) (CH1%) and 3% (% CH3), respectively for 10 minutes, 3) placing in trays coated with flexible plastic film (PVC) and 4) no treatment trays (NT). They were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days in the refrigerator (RE): 10 ± 5 ° C / 60 ± 5% RH) and cold (C): 5 ± 2 ° C / 85 ± 5% RH). The design was randomized in factorial scheme 5 (types of coating) x 2 (environments) x 5 (periods of evaluation). The covers were effective in slowing the increase in soluble solids but the acidity was lower in PVC and% CH1. The PVC cover and C increased the content of soluble sugars and reducing sugars. The guaviras can be stored for up to 12 days on cold and coated with PVC. © 2013 Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.

This paper reports an occurrence of Meloidogyne enterolobii (syn. M. mayaguensis) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, on guava (Psidium guajava), cv. Novo Milênio. The nematode was characterized and identified using esterase (Est) isozyme phenotype (Est M2, Rm: 0.7 e 0.9).

Jordan R.A.,UFGD | Jordan R.A.,University of Campinas | Gomes E.P.,UFGD | Biscaro G.A.,UFGD
Engenharia Agricola | Year: 2012

The energy balance for the production of sunflower oil and cake was carried out during the agricultural and industrial stage phase, where it was considered a cold extraction by hydraulic pressing, with the plant location in a rural area with a radius of 30km range. Data on productivity was used in two varieties of sunflower (Helio 358 and Aguará 04) grown in different seasons (2007/2008, 2008/2009), under different irrigation levels. Data showed that irrigation resulted in an increase in productivity of both varieties, and the best response was observed for Aguará 04 variety. Moreover, the increased intensity of irrigation negatively affected the energy balance, reducing the ratio between energy produced and energy used in the production chain. The most significant inputs in the energy intake were fertilizer followed by diesel oil, when irrigation was not used for. When the irrigation technique was used, the most significant inputs, in order of representativeness, were: energy, fertilizer and equipment.

Euclides V.P.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Do Valle C.B.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | Macedo M.C.M.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | De Almeida R.G.,Embrapa Gado de Corte | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2010

This paper aims to discuss the scientific progress obtained in the past ten years in genetics and plant breeding, soil fertility and plant nutrition and the importance of target sward conditions for planning, controlling and recommending management grazing of tropical grasses. In addition, progress in crop-livestock integration systems and management alternatives for mitigation of greenhouse gas emission by beef cattle production systems, two very important areas related to sustainable production systems, will also be discussed. © 2010 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

It was evaluated the development of "Baru" seedlings (DipteryxalataVog.) in pots under three levels of shading and four textural classes, from March to october 2010, in Campo Grande-MS. Treatments consisted of 0%, 30% and 50% levels of shade and sandy, medium clay and heavy clay soil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in split plots with repeated measures. It was used three replicates of ten plants per plot. The shading levels corresponded to the treatments and the different textural classes to the subplot. Plant height, leaf number and stem diameter were evaluated 15 days after emergence (DAE) to 195 DAE. Survival rate, leaf area and dry mass of the leaf, the stem and the roots were also estimated at 195 DAE. Higher values were observed in height and leaf area under shading condition. Plant height was 32.09 cm and 31.21 cm plant-1, leaf area was 639.24 cm 2 and 580.49 cm2 for 50% and 30% shade levels respectively. In clay soil the values were higher in most traits followed by soil with loamy soil. The highest yield of dry mass of leaf was in the clayey soil with an average of 7.28 g plant-1.The percentage of seedling survival in sandy soil was lower than in the others. There was an interaction between levels of shading and texture classes of soil on dry mass of the roots which was higher (1.43 g kg-1 soil) on the loamy soil at 50% shading. "Baru" seedlings reached measurements of height and diameter suitable for all levels of shading and textural classes.

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