Vitória, Brazil
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Graceli J.B.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Sena G.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Lopes P.F.I.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Zamprogno G.C.,UFES | And 5 more authors.
Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2013

The review purposes are to (1) evaluate the experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and metabolism and (2) identify the current knowledge of analytical procedures, biochemistry and environmental aspects relating to organotins. Organotins are pollutants that are used as biocides in antifouling paints. They produce endocrine-disrupting effects in mollusks, such as imposex. In rodents, organotin exposure induces developmental and reproductive toxicity as well as alteration of metabolic homeostasis through its action as an obesogen. The adverse effects that appear in rodents have raised concerns about organotins' potential health risk to humans in relation to organotin exposure. At present, triorganotin, such as tributyltin, have been demonstrated to produce imposex, and mammalian reproductive and metabolic toxicity. For most mammals, triorganotin exposure predominantly occurs through the ingestion, and this compound can cross the placenta. With these risks in mind, it is important to improve our knowledge of organotins' effects on environmental health. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Silva S.A.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Lima J.S.S.,UFES | Xavier A.C.,UFES | Teixeira M.M.,Federal University of Viçosa
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of chemical attributes of an Oxisol. The experiment was conducted with Coffea arabica L., variety Catuai, at a depth of 0-0.2 m in a grid area totaling 50 points. The studied chemical attributes were: P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Al, pH, H + Al, SB, t, T, V, m, MO, ISNa, equilibrium P and micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, and B). The data were analyzed by descriptive statistical analysis, followed by principal component with subsequent cluster analysis. The existence of spatial dependence was verified and the degree quantified using the principal components and geostatistics. The method of multivariate analysis based on principal components provided interpretable components; the first were correlated with acidity and the second with soil organic matter. Techniques of multivariate analysis, in combination with geostatistics, facilitated the evaluation of soil variability. The principal components 1 and 2 indicated moderate spatial dependence, with greater spatial continuity in component 1, which allowed a better characterization of soil acidity. Reduced availability of soil nutrients and considerable acidity were observed along the slope, lower levels of organic matter in the center of the area and high Al contents in the upper part.

Pereira W.A.,Federal University of Lavras | Pereira S.M.A.,UFES | Dos Santos Dias D.C.F.,Federal University of Viçosa
Journal of Seed Science | Year: 2015

Physiological quality and vigor of the seeds comprise properties that determine a high level of activity and performance during germination and seedling emergence, having a direct relation with the establishment of the stand of a crop. In this context, the assessment of seedling development, including the analysis of the seed reserves mobilization are a reliable method to investigate the physiological potential of seed lots. In this preliminary study, the aim was to investigate the dynamics of seed reserves mobilization of a sample of soybean commercial cultivars. By means of the seedling length bioassay and weight of dry matter of seeds, cotyledons, hypocotyls and radicles, information on the reserves mobilization during the germination process was obtained. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and Scott and Knott test, and afterwards, phenotypic correlations between traits were obtained. The results have shown that the dry matter of seeds, reserves reduction of seeds and dry matter of seedlings are positively correlated, and thus, seeds containing more reserves may be more effective during the early development of seedlings. In contrast, reserve reduction of seeds and conversion efficiency of the seeds reserves in the dry matter of seedlings are negatively correlated. © 2015 Associacao Brasileira de Tecnologia de Sementes. All rights reserved.

Vieira A.C.B.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Miranda A.E.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Saude Coletiva | De Vargas P.R.M.,UFES | Maciel E.L.N.,Programa de Pos Graduacao em Saude Coletiva
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: To describe HIV prevalence in pregnant women and the rate of vertical transmission according to socioeconomic status of residential neighborhoods. METHODS: Ecological exploratory study, which used the Information System of Notifiable Diseases database on HIV-positive pregnant women and AIDS in children, reported from 2000 to 2006, in Vitória, Southeastern Brazil. For analysis of socioeconomic data the Urban Quality Index was utilized The HIV prevalence rate in pregnant women and vertical transmission rate were calculated. Spatial distribution was carried out by Terraview 3.2.0. To verify the association between urban quality and HI V prevalence in pregnant women, Poisson regression was used. RESULTS: A total of 137 HIV-positive women and 14 children infected by vertical transmission was reported. Seven children matched to HIV-positive mothers without notification in the period analyzed. HIV prevalence among pregnant women in the period was 0.44%, and the vertical transmission rate was 9.7%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women and vertical transmission were associated with the urban quality of residential neighborhood. Neighborhoods with lower urban quality should be prioritized in actions to reduce vertical transmission.

Velten H.,UFES | Velten H.,Bielefeld University | Wamba E.,University of Yaounde I
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2012

We assume that dark matter is composed of scalar particles that form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) at some point during the cosmic evolution. Afterwards, cold dark matter is in the form of a condensate and behaves slightly different from the standard dark matter component. We study the large scale perturbative dynamics of the BEC dark matter in a model where this component coexists with baryonic matter and cosmological constant. The perturbative dynamics is studied using neo-Newtonian cosmology (where the pressure is dynamically relevant for the homogeneous and isotropic background) which is assumed to be correct for small values of the sound speed. We show that BEC dark matter effects can be seen in the matter power spectrum if the mass of the condensate particle lies in the range 15meV

Introduction: This systematic review of literature aims to verify prevalence rates of mental disorders in the Brazilian adult population. Methods: We searched the Medline and Lilacs in the period from 1997 to 2009 using the following descriptors: "mental disorders", "cross-section studies", "Brazil". Exclusion criteria of articles were: no abstract, no description of cross-sectional study, did not contain the estimate that would verify the prevalence of mental disorders, studies with specific populations and further studies with children, adolescents and elderly, and written in other languages other than Portuguese, English and Spanish. These criteria resulted in the selection of 25 articles. Results: In the studies reviewed found high rates of overall prevalence of mental disorders in adults. These rates varied between 20% and 56%, affecting mainly women and workers. Discussion: The studies analyzed in this review show an overview of mental disorders in Brazilian adult population, describing how is their distribution in this population, pointing to high rates, often associated with sex, age, socioeconomic, work conditions and lifestyles of individuals.

Objective: Analyze the completeness of the data of SIM on the deaths of suicide in ES, Southeast and Brazil (1996 to 2007), referring to the demographic variables. Methods: A descriptive analytical study based on secondary data. The deaths registered in the SIM of suicide in Espírito Santo, Southeast and Brazil were included. The absolute number and percentage of non fulfillment of the variables in the declaration of death of suicide during the period was analyzed. To evaluate the degrees of non completeness of the socio demographic declaration of death variables, a score recommended by the researchers was adopted. The equations of the model chosen and the adjustment statistics for the missing data percentages over time (R2 value and p-value of the F test of model adequacy) were obtained from the SPSS program. The level of significance adopted was of 5%. Results: The equations of the models found show that the tendencies of non completeness for some variables are rising, while for other variables are falling and statistically significant. Conclusion: The sex and age variables indicated stability in the rates in ES, Southeast and Brazil, with significative improvements in the fulfillment of the declarations of death of the latter. As to the other variables, ES turned out to have the worst rates in the fulfillment of the declarations of death of suicide.

Campos M.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Krohling R.A.,UFES
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2015

This paper proposes an entropy-based bare bones particle swarm for solving dynamic constrained optimization problems. The Shannon's entropy is established as a phenotypic diversity index and the proposed algorithm uses the Shannon's index of diversity to aggregate the global-best and local-best bare bones particle swarm variants. The proposed approach applies the idea of mixture of search directions, using the index of diversity as a factor to balance the influence of the global-best and local-best search directions. High diversity promotes the search guided by the global-best solution, with a normal distribution for exploitation. Low diversity promotes the search guided by the local-best solution, with a heavy-tailed distribution for exploration. A constraint-handling strategy is also proposed, which uses a ranking method with selection based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to obtain the best solution within a specific population of candidate solutions. Mechanisms to detect changes in the environment and to update particles' memories are also implemented into the proposed algorithm. All these strategies do not act independently. They operate related to each other to tackle problems such as: diversity loss due to convergence and outdated memories due to changes in the environment. The combined effect of these strategies provides an algorithm with ability to maintain a proper balance between exploration and exploitation at any stage of the search process without losing the tracking ability. An empirical study was carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. Experimental results show the suitability of the algorithm in terms of effectiveness to find good solutions for the benchmark problems investigated. Finally, an application is developed where the proposed algorithm is applied to solve the dynamic economic dispatch problem in power systems. © 2016.

Santos J.M.,Ferrari | Mavroidis I.,Hellenic Open University | Reis N.C.,UFES | Pagel E.C.,UFES
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

Tracer gas was released upwind of a two-compartment complex shaped building under unstable atmospheric conditions. The mean wind direction was normal to or at 45° to the long face of the building. The general patterns of concentration distribution on the building external walls and inside the building were analysed and the influence of natural and mechanical ventilation on indoor concentration distributions was discussed. Mean concentration levels, as well as the concentration fluctuation intensity, were higher on the windward walls of the building, although concentration levels varied along each wall. Concentration fluctuations measured inside the building were lower than those measured outside. Inside the two compartments of the building, the time series of concentrations had a similar general behaviour; however, gas concentrations took approximately 1.5 times longer to reach the mean maximum concentration value at the downwind compartment 02 while they also decreased more rapidly in the upwind compartment 01 after the source was turned off. The highest indoor concentration and concentration fluctuation values were observed at the detectors located close to the windward walls, especially when the building windows were open. Experiments with and without natural ventilation suggested that infiltration and exfiltration of contaminants is much faster when the building windows are open, resulting to higher indoor concentration levels. Furthermore, mechanical ventilation tends to homogenize concentrations and suppress concentration fluctuations, leading to lower maximum concentration values. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Garcia-Flores A.F.,University of Campinas | Moreira A.F.L.,University of Campinas | Kaneko U.F.,University of Campinas | Ardito F.M.,University of Campinas | And 5 more authors.
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

A remarkable hardening (∼30cm -1) of the normal mode of vibration associated with the symmetric stretching of the oxygen octahedra for the Ba 2FeReO 6 and Sr 2CrReO 6 double perovskites is observed below the corresponding magnetic ordering temperatures. The very large magnitude of this effect and its absence for the antisymmetric stretching mode provide evidence against a conventional spin-phonon coupling mechanism. Our observations are consistent with a collective excitation formed by the combination of the vibrational mode with oscillations of Fe or Cr 3d and Re 5d occupations and spin magnitudes. © 2012 American Physical Society.

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