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Ponta Grossa, Brazil

This research aims to analyze the performance of the Brazilian pulp and paper industry, from 2001 to 2011, towards the main variables for the sector analysis, such as production capacity, sort of products, magnitude of exports, imports, destination of exports, level and capacity of utilization, and the average price of exports. In order to that, it used primary data from Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade (MDIC, 2012), Brazilian Association of Pulp and Paper (BRACELPA, 2011) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2011). In general, results indicate that cellulose industry has gained importance in international trade, before a new spatial redistribution of production, according to the obsolescence of European, North American and Canadian industries, and the insertion of hardwood pulp in different stages of production. In relation to the paper industry, the results suggest a scenario not as promising as for the pulp one, even though domestic market may constitute a major boost to the industry.

In order to evaluate soybean response to the ammoniacal zinc acetate (ACA Plus) application via seed, three trials were developed in different experimental fields during the seasons of 2012/13, 2013/14 and 2014/15, in the respective cities: Cornélio Procópio, Palmeira and Ponta Grossa. The design was in randomized blocks, with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: 1) Absolute control (without any fertilizer and without treatment seeds); 2) Control (without seeds treatment); 3) ACA Plus - nitrogen source + zinc (2 mL kg-1 seed); 4) ACA Plus (4 mL kg-1 seed); 5) FortSeedDry - cobalt+molybdenum (2 g kg-1 seed). From the average obtained from the three seasons data's, it was reported that with the application of ACA Plus, compared to the application of cobalt and molybdenum, there were significant increases for: plant height, roots fresh and dry matter, number of pods per plant. Consequently, the highest yields were obtained by applying the ACA Plus. The application of ACA Plus via seeds is a practicable technique that can improve the final stand of the soybean crop.

De Oliveira C.R.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | Pereira M.,UEPG
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2010

We consider the Hamiltonian operator associated with planar sections of infinitely long cylindrical solenoids and with a homogeneous magnetic field in their interior. First, in the Sobolev space H2, we characterize all generalized boundary conditions on the solenoid border compatible with quantum mechanics, i.e. the boundary conditions, so that the corresponding Hamiltonian operators are self-adjoint. Then we study and compare the scattering of the most usual boundary conditions, that is, Dirichlet, Neumann and Robin. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

De Melo T.J.A.,Federal University of Campina Grande | Pinheiro L.A.,UEPG | Canevarolo S.V.,Federal University of Sao Carlos
Polimeros | Year: 2010

Residence time distribution (RTD) is a very important parameter in extrusion, either for simple polymer processing or for special processes like compounding, blending, reactive compatibilization, and controlled degradation. This work deals with the values of mean residence time (tn) as a function of the number of 45 degrees kneading elements in the screw profile, screw speed, and feeding rate. The tn values were calculated from the RTD curves, which in turn were determined by the technique of a marker added as a pulse in the steady state polymer flow. The values of tn were empirically modeled as a function of those parameters. The results showed that feeding rate is the most influent parameter, followed by number of kneading elements and screw speed. The modeling has given a quadratic function relating t and the operational parameters tested.

Filho A.B.C.,Sao Paulo State University | Rezende B.L.A.,UEPG | Costa C.C.,Unid Academy Agronomia E Tecnologia Of Alimentos
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2010

Lettuce and tomato are vegetables that can be grown in protected cultivation, under given conditions. Considering their expensive production systems, intercropping might be an excellent alternative to optimize costs. Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University (UNESP), at Jaboticabal, Brazil, to study the economic viability of intercropping lettuce and tomato under protected cultivation. To set the intercropping, lettuce was transplanted 0, 10, 20, and 30 days after transplanting (DAT) tomato and vice-versa, in two seasons, namely April to September 2003 and January to June 2004, when monocultures of both vegetables were also carried out. At the first planting season, operational profits (OP) in intercropping (lettuce transplanted 0, 10, and 20 DAT tomato) were higher than in monocultures. At the first season, the return rates (RR) and OP were very much alike, whereas at the second season, RR in intercropping were lower than in monoculture. Transplanting tomato after lettuce, at both the first and second seasons, resulted in higher OP than those in monocultures. RR, OP and the profitability index (PI) were higher at the first than at the second season, independent of the growing system. RR in intercropping, independently of the intercropping schedule, were higher than in monoculture. In general, PI of tomato in monoculture and in intercropping were quite similar and both were higher than PI in the monoculture of lettuce. The economic indexes confirmed the agronomic viability (expressed by the index of area use efficiency) of transplanting lettuce and tomato simultaneously in both growing seasons; transplanting lettuce 10 and 20 DAT tomato, in the second season; and transplanting tomato after lettuce in all studied schedules. The economic indexes reached their peaks when tomato and lettuce were transplanted at the same day, in the first growing season (in average): OP of BRL$ 12,948.63 (US$ 4,273.48) in 614.4 m-2; RR of 6.7% and IP of 85%.

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