Taitō-ku, Japan
Taitō-ku, Japan

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Tsubouchi A.,Hokkaido University | Fukui D.,Asahiyama Zoo | Ueda M.,Yokohama Zoorasia | Tada K.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | And 8 more authors.
Zoological Science | Year: 2012

To investigate the molecular phylogeny and evolution of the family Canidae, nucleotide sequences of the zinc-finger-protein gene on the Y chromosome (ZFY, 9241146 bp) and its homologous gene on the X chromosome (ZFX, 834839 bp) for twelve canid species were determined. The phylogenetic relationships among species reconstructed by the paternal ZFY sequences closely agreed with those by mtDNA and autosomal DNA trees in previous reports, and strongly supported the phylogenetic affinity between the wolf-like canids clade and the South American canids clade. However, the branching order of some species differed between phylogenies of ZFY and ZFX genes: Cuon alpinus and Canis mesomelas were included in the wolf-like canid clades in the ZFY tree, whereas both species were clustered in a group of Chrysocyon brachyurus and Speothos venaticus in the ZFX tree. The topology difference between ZFY and ZFX trees may have resulted from the two-times higher substitution rate of the former than the latter, which was clarified in the present study. In addition, two types of transposable element sequence (SINE-I and SINE-II) were found to occur in the ZFY final intron of the twelve canid species examined. Because the SINE-I sequences were shared by all the species, they may have been inserted into the ZFY of the common ancestor before species radiation in Canidae. By contract, SINE-II found in only Canis aureus could have been inserted into ZFY independently after the speciation. The molecular diversity of SINE sequences of Canidae reflects evolutionary history of the species radiation. © 2012 Zoological Society of Japan.


PubMed | Ueno Zoological Gardens, Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, Wildlife Nutrition Center, Taipei Zoo and Save Vietnams Wildlife
Type: | Journal: Zoo biology | Year: 2017

Pangolins are ant specialists which are under intense threat from the illegal wildlife trade. Nutrition has notoriously been their downfall in captivity and is still an issue in regards to rescue and rehabilitation. We analyzed the nutrient content of diets used by institutions that are successfully keeping Asian pangolins and to assess the variety of the ingredients and nutrients, compared these with the nutritional requirements of potential nutritional model species. We performed intake studies at five institutions and also had data from three other institutions. We also analyzed five different wild food items to use as a proxy of wild diet. We observed two categories of captive diets: those mostly or completely composed of insects and those high in commercial feeds or animal meat. Nutrient values were broad and there was no clear rule. The non-protein energy to protein energy ratio of the diets were much higher than the wild food items, more so for those which receive less insects. The average contribution of carbohydrate, fat, and protein energy were also further away from the wild samples the less insects they contained. The previously suggested nutritional model for pangolins is the domestic dog which is supported by our relatively large nutrient ranges of apparently successful diets, however, due to their highly carnivorous nature; the upper most nutrient intake data are not consistent with this and favor the feline nutrient recommendations. We are unable to render a conclusion of what model is more appropriate based on our data collected.


Hanafusa Y.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health | Hirano Y.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Watabe H.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hosaka K.,TNS | And 2 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2016

To date, Schizophyllum commune infection has been identified in only humans and dogs. A 7-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died after exhibiting corneal opacity, anorexia, and labored respiration. At necropsy, phthisis of the left eyeball was detected, and multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions, especially in the lung, heart, and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, numerous hyphae were seen in granulomatous lesions in the eyes, lung, heart, and lymph nodules. An isolate on potato dextrose agar from the eyes, lung, and sputum yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mycelia with basidiocarps (fruiting bodies) at 37°C. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 25°C, although sustained growth also occurred at 37°C. The fungal isolate, KH-JPN15-011, had distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules and clamp connections, which were consistent with the characteristics of basidiomycete fungus. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA showed 99.67% (617 bp) similarity with those of S. commune. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present isolate is most closely related to the samples from the Old World. This is the first report of a fatal disease caused by S. commune in exotic animals. Previously reported human and canine infections have not included granulomatous endophthalmitis and myocarditis. After considering these and previous findings, there is a possibility that S. commune from the Old World may include numerous highly pathogenic strains. © 2016, © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.


PubMed | Japanese National Institute of Animal Health, TNS and Ueno Zoological Gardens
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical mycology | Year: 2016

To date, Schizophyllum commune infection has been identified in only humans and dogs. A 7-year-old female harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) died after exhibiting corneal opacity, anorexia, and labored respiration. At necropsy, phthisis of the left eyeball was detected, and multiple nodular lesions were observed in the thoracic and abdominal regions, especially in the lung, heart, and lymph nodes. Histopathologically, numerous hyphae were seen in granulomatous lesions in the eyes, lung, heart, and lymph nodules. An isolate on potato dextrose agar from the eyes, lung, and sputum yielded a rapidly growing white woolly mycelia with basidiocarps (fruiting bodies) at 37C. A suitable temperature for mycelial growth was obtained at 25C, although sustained growth also occurred at 37C. The fungal isolate, KH-JPN15-011, had distinctive features including hyphae bearing spicules and clamp connections, which were consistent with the characteristics of basidiomycete fungus. The sequence of the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA showed 99.67% (617bp) similarity with those of S. commune Phylogenetic analysis showed that the present isolate is most closely related to the samples from the Old World. This is the first report of a fatal disease caused by S. commune in exotic animals. Previously reported human and canine infections have not included granulomatous endophthalmitis and myocarditis. After considering these and previous findings, there is a possibility that S. commune from the Old World may include numerous highly pathogenic strains.


Ejiri H.,Nihon University | Sato Y.,Nihon University | Kim K.-S.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Hara T.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pollens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations. © 2011 Entomological Society of America.


Kusuda S.,Gifu University | Adachi I.,Gifu University | Fujioka K.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Nakamura M.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | And 4 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

Information about breeding and the reproductive biology of mouse deer is limited in the wild and captivity No reports on reproductive endocrinology are available The objective of the present study was to observe the reproductive biology based on breeding records, to validate the utility of the non-invasive endocrine monitoring technique using feces of the female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus), and thus to clarify the reproductive physiology Breeding records from 2 females were investigated and the fecal progestagen profile was monitored in captivity Fecal progestagens were extracted using methanol and measured by enzyme immunoassay From the breeding records, many births occurred in May (spring) and November-December (winter); however, fecal progestagen profile showed cyclical changes throughout the year in a female mouse deer Most mounting and mating behaviors were observed 2-3 days after the peak of progestagen concentration during luteal phase The ovarian cycle length based on the fecal progestagen profile averaged 14.5 ± 0.3 days The fecal progestagen concentration remained high during pregnancy Fecal progestagen monitoring is useful for evaluating ovarian activity and pregnancy in the lesser mouse deer © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Ueno Zoological Gardens, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology and University of Tokyo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.


Hirota A.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hara T.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hosoda T.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hashizaki F.,Ueno Zoological Gardens
Zoo Biology | Year: 2011

On February 10, 2008, a newborn male spectral tarsier (Tarsius tarsier) was found on the floor of the indoor exhibit room in the Small Mammal House of the Ueno Zoological Gardens. The dam showed no signs of providing maternal care and therefore we decided to hand-raise the infant. Its birth weight was 18.7g. We placed the dam and infant in an incubator and gave 12.5-25% formula (for kittens), until the 145th day after birth. We limited the volume of formula intake to avoid excessive intake and to prevent diarrhea. For nutrition enrichment, we added a chicken liver homogenate to the formula 1-3 times per day. The infant was given a sunbath for 10min on the 28th day. He showed no serious decline in health, except for diarrhea that occurred during the first few days after birth. He ate a small cricket for the first time on the 50th day and easily caught mealworms on his own on the 105th day. Gradual changes in feeding times, formula concentration, and the nutritionally enriched formula were essential for successfully hand-raising the tarsier. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


PubMed | Ueno Zoological Gardens
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Zoo biology | Year: 2011

On February 10, 2008, a newborn male spectral tarsier (Tarsius tarsier) was found on the floor of the indoor exhibit room in the Small Mammal House of the Ueno Zoological Gardens. The dam showed no signs of providing maternal care and therefore we decided to hand-raise the infant. Its birth weight was 18.7g. We placed the dam and infant in an incubator and gave 12.5-25% formula (for kittens), until the 145th day after birth. We limited the volume of formula intake to avoid excessive intake and to prevent diarrhea. For nutrition enrichment, we added a chicken liver homogenate to the formula 1-3 times per day. The infant was given a sunbath for 10min on the 28th day. He showed no serious decline in health, except for diarrhea that occurred during the first few days after birth. He ate a small cricket for the first time on the 50th day and easily caught mealworms on his own on the 105th day. Gradual changes in feeding times, formula concentration, and the nutritionally enriched formula were essential for successfully hand-raising the tarsier.

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