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Taitō-ku, Japan

Ejiri H.,Nihon University | Sato Y.,Nihon University | Kim K.-S.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Hara T.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2011

Several species of captive and wild birds have been found to be infected with various avian blood protozoa in Japan. We investigated the prevalence and transmission of avian malaria parasite and determined the bloodmeal hosts of mosquitoes collected in a zoological garden in Tokyo, Japan, by using the polymerase chain reaction. In total, 310 unfed and 140 blood-fed mosquitoes of seven species were collected by using sweep nets and CDC traps. Bloodmeal identification indicated that mosquitoes had fed on 17 avian and five mammalian species, including captive animals. The results of avian malaria parasite detection from mosquitoes with avian bloodmeals indicated that Culex pipiens pollens Coquillet is a main vector of avian Plasmodium in the current study site and that some captive and wild birds could be infected with avian malaria parasites. Furthermore, the distances between the collection site of blood-fed mosquitoes and the locations of their blood-source captive animals were estimated. Most females with fresh bloodmeals were found within 40 m of caged animals, whereas half-gravid and gravid females were found between 10 and 350 m from caged host animals. We demonstrated that blood-fed mosquitoes can provide useful information regarding the mosquito vector species of avian malaria parasites and allows for noninvasive detection of the presence of avian malaria parasites in bird populations. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source


Hirota A.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hara T.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hosoda T.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Hashizaki F.,Ueno Zoological Gardens
Zoo Biology | Year: 2011

On February 10, 2008, a newborn male spectral tarsier (Tarsius tarsier) was found on the floor of the indoor exhibit room in the Small Mammal House of the Ueno Zoological Gardens. The dam showed no signs of providing maternal care and therefore we decided to hand-raise the infant. Its birth weight was 18.7g. We placed the dam and infant in an incubator and gave 12.5-25% formula (for kittens), until the 145th day after birth. We limited the volume of formula intake to avoid excessive intake and to prevent diarrhea. For nutrition enrichment, we added a chicken liver homogenate to the formula 1-3 times per day. The infant was given a sunbath for 10min on the 28th day. He showed no serious decline in health, except for diarrhea that occurred during the first few days after birth. He ate a small cricket for the first time on the 50th day and easily caught mealworms on his own on the 105th day. Gradual changes in feeding times, formula concentration, and the nutritionally enriched formula were essential for successfully hand-raising the tarsier. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source


Kusuda S.,Gifu University | Adachi I.,Gifu University | Fujioka K.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | Nakamura M.,Ueno Zoological Gardens | And 4 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2013

Information about breeding and the reproductive biology of mouse deer is limited in the wild and captivity No reports on reproductive endocrinology are available The objective of the present study was to observe the reproductive biology based on breeding records, to validate the utility of the non-invasive endocrine monitoring technique using feces of the female lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus), and thus to clarify the reproductive physiology Breeding records from 2 females were investigated and the fecal progestagen profile was monitored in captivity Fecal progestagens were extracted using methanol and measured by enzyme immunoassay From the breeding records, many births occurred in May (spring) and November-December (winter); however, fecal progestagen profile showed cyclical changes throughout the year in a female mouse deer Most mounting and mating behaviors were observed 2-3 days after the peak of progestagen concentration during luteal phase The ovarian cycle length based on the fecal progestagen profile averaged 14.5 ± 0.3 days The fecal progestagen concentration remained high during pregnancy Fecal progestagen monitoring is useful for evaluating ovarian activity and pregnancy in the lesser mouse deer © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

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