UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics


UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics

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Cutter W.B.,Pomona College | Franco S.F.,University of Management and Economics | Franco S.F.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2012

Minimum parking requirements (MPRs) are the norm for urban and suburban development in the United States (Davidson et al., 2002). The justification for MPRs is that overflow parking will occupy nearby street or off-street parking. Shoup (1999a) and Willson (1995) provide cases where there is reason to believe that parking space requirements have forced parcel developers to place more parking than they would in the absence of parking requirements. However, to our knowledge the existing literature does not test the effect of parking minimums on the amount of lot space devoted to parking beyond a few case studies. This paper tests the hypothesis that MPRs bind for most land uses using data on suburban office, commercial, industrial and retail property sales from Los Angeles County using both direct and indirect approaches. Our indirect test of the effects of parking requirements is similar to the one used by Glaeser and Gyourko (2003). A simple theoretical model shows that the marginal value of additional parking to the sale price of a building should be equal to the cost of land plus the cost of parking construction. We estimate the marginal values of parking and lot area with spatial methods using a large data set from the Los Angeles area non-residential property sales and find that for most of the property types the marginal value of parking is significantly below that of the parcel area. In addition, we directly examine required and supplied parking and find that on average parking supplied is quite close to the required amount. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Amaral J.F.D.,University of Lisbon | Amaral J.F.D.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Dias J.,University of Lisbon | Dias J.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Regional Science | Year: 2012

The main purpose of this paper is to develop a new kind of input-output multiplier that would be particularly well suited to quantifying the impacts of final demand changes on the sectoral output or value-added growth potential of an economy. Instead of using the traditional output multipliers, solving an appropriate optimization problem provides what can be called input-output Euclidean distance multipliers. The method does not impose unitary final demand shocks with a fixed (predetermined) sectoral structure, thus allowing the economy to change across the spectrum of all possible final demand variations represented by vectors of modulus 1. It can be very helpful in measuring interindustry linkages and key sectors in a national or regional economy. An empirical illustration is made, using national (Spain and Portugal) and regional (Balearic Islands and the Azores) input-output data. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Barros C.P.,University of Lisbon | Barros C.P.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Gil-Alana L.A.,University of Navarra | Wanke P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2014

This paper investigates the consumption of sugar cane ethanol in Brazil for the time period from January 2000 to December 2012. We examine ethanol and gasoline consumption along with the price ratio series. Two important features of the data are analyzed, in particular, its degree of persistence and the seasonality. The results show that the two series of consumption are fractionally integrated with orders of integration smaller than 1 implying that shocks in the series will disappear in the long run. On the other hand, the price ratio series displays an order of integration higher than 1 implying lack of mean reversion behavior. This suggests that strong policy measures must be adopted on prices in the event of shocks since they do not recover by themselves in the long run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Wanke P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Barros C.P.,University of Lisbon | Barros C.P.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Figueiredo O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2014

This paper investigates paths for improving efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry, which has undergone significant transformations since the economy deregulation in the mid 1990s. The main research objective is to determine whether or not different types of cargoes and geographic regions serviced significantly impact trucking efficiency levels by applying a Distance Friction Minimization approach with fixed factors. Results support the evidence regarding a heterogeneous impact of cargo mix and route mix on input reducing and output increasing potentials. Managerial impacts in terms of fleet subcontracting and increased focus on specific transport demands are also addressed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Amaral A.,University of Lisbon | Abreu M.,University of Lisbon | Abreu M.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Mendes V.,CMVM Portuguese Securities Commission | Mendes V.,Center for Advanced Studies in Management and Economics
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2014

We use a spatial Probit model to study the effect of contagion between banking systems of different countries. Applied to the late 1990s banking crisis in Asia we show that the phenomena of contagion is better seized using a spatial than a traditional Probit model. Unlike the latter, the spatial Probit model allows one to consider the cascade of cross and feedback effects of contagion that result from the outbreak of one initial crisis in one country or system. These contagion effects may result either from business connections between institutions of different countries or from institutional similarities between banking systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Confraria H.,University of Lisbon | Godinho M.M.,University of Lisbon | Godinho M.M.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics
Scientometrics | Year: 2014

The number of scientific papers published by researchers in Africa has been rising faster than the total world scientific output in recent years. This trend is relevant, as for a long period up until 1996, Africa’s share of the world scientific output remained below 1.5 %. The propensity to publish in the continent has risen particularly fast since 2004, suggesting that a possible take-off of African science is taking place. This paper highlights that, in parallel with this most recent growth in output, the apparent productivity of African science, as measured by publications to gross domestic product, has risen in recent years to a level above the world average, although, when one looks at the equivalent ratio after it has been normalized by population, there is still a huge gap to overcome. Further it is shown that publications from those few African countries whose scientific communities demonstrate higher levels of specialization and integration in international networks, have a higher impact than the world average. Additionally, the paper discusses the potential applications of the new knowledge that has been produced by African researchers, highlighting that so far, South Africa seems to be the only African country where a reasonable part of that new knowledge seems to be connecting with innovation. © 2014, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

Barros C.P.,University of Lisbon | Barros C.P.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Bin Liang Q.,University of Perpignan | Peypoch N.,University of Perpignan
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013

This paper analyses technical efficiency in French airports from 2005 to 2008 with the inverse B-convex model. This methodology is adopted permitting to relax the traditional convexity hypothesis common in DEA (data envelopment analysis) literature. The policy implications of the study is that French airport should upgrade their managerial procedures to cope with the frontier of best practices. Moreover non-convex DEA models should be adopted in the study of airports efficiency. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Godinho M.M.,University of Lisbon | Godinho M.M.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Ferreira V.,Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
Research Policy | Year: 2012

Both China and India have been experiencing a historical take-off in the use of intellectual property rights (IPR). In terms of trademark applications filed with domestic IP offices in 2009, the evidence demonstrates that China now ranks 1st worldwide and India 5th, while for patent filings China ranks 3rd worldwide and India ranks 9th. This performance is remarkable as both China and India experienced negligible demand for IPR protection as recently as two decades ago. The IPR take up trends in these two countries are analyzed in detail, highlighting the structure of patent and trademark demand since 1990. Specifically, the available series are broken down and analyzed according to: (i) national versus foreign origin of patents and trademarks; (ii) technological (IPC) and trademark (NICE) classes; and (iii) the major individual patent users in each country. The data used refers to applications in the Chinese and Indian IP offices although the demand from residents of these two countries in both the international and other national systems is also assessed. Beyond the existing momentum in IPR registrations by China and India and their capacity to maintain it into the near future, the paper addresses practical questions about the strategies, motives and benefits behind the current trends. In particular, we seek to evaluate the capacity of both China's and India's National Innovation Systems to internalize the potential returns of this increasing demand for IPR. The insight reached finds that should both China and India sustain their current IPR growth rates, they will be able to catch up with the most advanced economies within the time span of a few decades. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Godinho M.M.,University of Lisbon | Godinho M.M.,UECE Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Ferreira V.,Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
2013 Proceedings of PICMET 2013: Technology Management in the IT-Driven Services | Year: 2013

China has been experiencing a historical take-off in its use of intellectual property rights (IPR). This paper discusses the IPR strategy of two leading high-tech Chinese firms, Huawei and ZTE, analyzing how they are moving to global leadership in the telecom equipment market. Specifically, the paper addresses their IPR performance with respect to patenting and trademark registration in the most relevant global IPR systems. By 2008 Huawei had already reached world leadership in the international PCT patents applicants' ranking, while in 2011 Huawei was substituted by ZTE in that position (with Huawei dropping to 3rd place). The paper shows how both firms have developed dynamic capabilities in innovation by investing strongly in R&D. This investment has reflected in a dramatic growth of patent applications. Even if a direct correlation between patent applications and capacity to innovate is not assumed, the growing demand for patents (and more recently trademarks) in different IPR systems reveals an aggressive technological and commercial stance of both firms on the global market. © 2013 PICMET.

Bento A.M.,Cornell University | Franco S.F.,New University of Lisbon | Franco S.F.,Uece Research Unit on Complexity and Economics | Kaffine D.,Colorado School of Mines
Journal of Environmental Economics and Management | Year: 2011

This paper examines the welfare effects of anti-sprawl policies, such as development tax, in a simple spatial explicit urban model with two market failures - urban decline at the city core and underprovision of open space amenities at the urban fringe - and pre-existing distortionary property tax, used to fund public services and improvements to mitigate urban decline. Consistent with prior double-dividend literature, there is a tax interaction effect that occurs between the development tax and the pre-existing property tax. However, there are two fundamental differences between the tax interaction effect identified here and that of prior literature. Ours one has two components: First, there is a cost-side tax interaction effect that is 'spatially' concentrated at the urban fringe, as only agents at the urban fringe alter their behavior in response to the development tax. Second, there is also a benefit-side tax interaction effect, as increases in open space at the urban fringe are capitalized into housing prices throughout the city. In contrast to prior literature, we find that the empirical importance of the combined tax interaction effect is of substantially less importance and, as a consequence, the likelihood of a 'double-dividend' is higher than in prior studies. Further, we show that the development tax should be part of the local tax system, even in the absence of open space benefits. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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