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Strasbourg, France

Kombiok J.M.,Savanna Agricultural Research Institute | Buah S.S.J.,SARI | Dzomeku I.K.,UdS
Journal of Crop Improvement | Year: 2012

Intercropping maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) may ensure efficient and effective use of available resources, but little is known about its effect on the output of the staple crops. A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of intercropping of maize in maize/rice mixture in northern Ghana in 2007 and 2008 using randomized complete block design with five treatments and four replications. Treatments were sole rice drilled (SRD), sole rice broadcast (SRB), sole maize (SM), rice drilled in maize/rice intercrop (MRD), and rice broadcast in maize/rice intercrop (MRB). Fertilizer was applied at planting at the rate of 60-30-30 kg/ha as N, P 2O 5, and K 2O. Additional 30 kg N/ha as ammonium sulfate was applied five weeks after planting. Grain yields from both monocrops were significantly higher than those from the intercrops. The trend was similar for straw weight and 100 seed weight. In 2007, maize yield losses caused by the inclusion of rice in the systems were 21% for MRD and 46% for MRB. In 2008, the reduction in maize yield was 27% for MRD and 43% MRB, suggesting that maize yield reduction in maize/rice mixture was higher when rice was broadcast than when it was drilled. The land equivalent ratio was more than one in both years, indicating yield advantage from intercropping maize and rice over growing the two crops in pure stands. We recommend that to maintain high maize yields in maize/rice intercropping system, it is better to drill than to broadcast the rice. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Fioretti F.,UdS | Fioretti F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mendoza-Palomares C.,UdS | Mendoza-Palomares C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology | Year: 2011

The vitality of the pulp is so fundamental to the functional life of the tooth that new strategies are required to avoid the removal of the whole pulp following irreversible pulpitis and to regenerate the lost endodontic tissues. Nano-odontology would provide suitable solutions for pulp tissue conservative and regenerative approaches. In our group, we have shown that when covalently coupled to Poly-Glutamic Acid (PGA) the incorporation of an anti-inflammatory hormone (melanocortin, α-MSH) into the multilayered films Poly-L-Lysine (PLL)/PGA increases the anti-inflammatory reaction of pulp fibroblasts and macrophages stimulated by LPS (Lipo-Polysaccharides). Recently, usual linear PLL polymers have been chemically grafted for making new Dendrigraft polymers (DGL G4) whose higher branching ratios can give useful properties. The objective is to use nanostructured assemblies containing DGL G4 and PGA-α-MSH to design a new nanomaterial. These nanostructured assemblies (DGL G4-PGA-α-MSH) n constitute a thick reservoir of the anti-inflammatory peptide and promote adhesion and proliferation of pulp fibroblast on the biomaterial surface. These nanostructured films could be adapted for an endodontic regeneration application to target pulp connective tissue regeneration. Firstly, the crucial reduction of inflammation could be helpful by using PGA-α-MSH and secondly the initiation of the regeneration of the connective tissue will be promoted by the whole nanostructured film of which allows pulp cells colonisation. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved. Source

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