Bertol I.,Santa Catarina State University |
Bertol C.,Representacoes Comerciais e Projetos Industriais Ltda |
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2012
The use of rain simulators is fundamental to study rainfall erosion. They are used to monitor the experimental conditions, particularly the rain characteristics and to understand the soil erosion process better. Several types of rainfall simulators have been developed since 1930 around the world. Currently, the Swanson model is the most commonly used. However, a small number of these simulators is fully operational in Brazil, due to the high degree of wear and difficulties of maintenance. The purpose of this study was to develop a new rainfall simulator model, made mostly of aluminum, with no motor to rotate the booms and driven by hydraulic thrust. This "water thrust" rainfall simulator maintains the general features of the Swanson model, mainly those related to the characteristics of the rainfall produced, but with less weight, making the gasoline engine to move the booms superfluous. These properties make this new model lighter, economical, quiet and easier to move about in the experimental area than the model Swanson, since it can be dislocated by only four persons. The rainfall intensity was linearly and positively correlated with the water pressure of the manometer.
Effects of fruit bagging on pests and diseases control and on quality and maturity of Fuji Suprema apples [Efeito do ensacamento dos frutos no controle de pragas e doenças e na qualidade e maturação de maçãs Fuji Suprema]
Teixeira R.,Santa Catarina State University |
Boff M.I.C.,UDESC |
do Amarante C.V.T.,UDESC |
Steffens C.A.,UDESC |
Boff P.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina EPAGRI
Bragantia | Year: 2011
This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fruit bagging with different materials on the protection of apples against pests and diseases, as well as its influence on the quality, maturity and calcium (Ca) content of apple fruit. The experiment was carried out in 2007/2008 and 2008/2009, in an organic apple orchard located at São Joaquim region, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Ten year-old 'Fuji Suprema' apple trees grafted on 'Marubakaido' rootstock, with a 'EM-9' interstem, had their fruits bagged with a transparent micro-holed plastic and non-textured fabric bags. Fruits were bagged right after hand-thinning, from nearly 40 days after flowering until harvesting. The control treatment consisted of unbagged fruit. At harvest, fruits were assessed for damages caused by fruit-fly (Anastrepha fraterculus), oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) and apple leafroller (Bonagota salubricola). The incidence of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis), bitter rot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), and moldy core (Alternaria sp.; Fusarium sp.) diseases, and of physiological disorders (russeting and bitter pit) were also assessed. The physico-chemical attributes of maturity and quality, and fruit Ca content were evaluated. Regardless of the bag material used, bagged fruit were protected against insect damages, but not against diseases caused by the evaluated fungus. In 2008/2009, bagged fruit showed a significantly higher Ca content and lower incidence of bitter pit and higher incidence of russeting than the control treatment. Bagging advanced fruit maturity, especially in transparent micro-holed plastic, and reduced skin red color, mainly in non-textured fabric bag.
Barbieri R.,UDESC |
Machado R.D.,Federal University of Paraná
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures | Year: 2015
The Modified Global Green's Function Method (MGGFM) is an integral technique that is characterized by good accuracy in the evaluation of boundary fluxes. This method uses only projections of the Green's Function for the solution of the discrete problem and this is the origin of the term 'Modified' of its name. In this paper the local strategy for calculating the projections of Green's function using de Finite Element Method (FEM) are detailed. The numerical examples show some aspects of the method that had not yet been observed and good results for the flux in all nodes of the mesh. © 2015, Brazilian Association of Computational Mechanics.All right reserved.
Tasca F.A.,Santa Catarina State University |
Ernani P.R.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development |
Rogeri D.A.,UDESC |
Gatiboni L.C.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development |
Cassol P.C.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2011
Ammonia volatilization is an important process of N loss which decreases the use efficiency of N by plants when urea is applied on the soil surface. To overcome this problem, some chemical compounds were mixed with urea to inhibit the urease action. The purpose of this study was to compare applications of an alternative fertilizer with urease inhibitor to reduce ammonia volatilization with conventional urea, under certain environmental and soil conditions. Four experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008, under laboratory conditions, with samples of a Humic Haplumbrept. The treatments varied according to each experiment in terms of soil conditions, such as pH (4.0, 5.5, 6.3 and 6.8), soil water content (5, 10 or 20 % moisture), temperature (18 or 35°C), aside from the fertilizer physical state (solid or liquid) and application method (over the surface or soil-incorporated). The experimental units consisted of plastic trays into which 12 kg of soil (dry basis) were filled in a 15 cm layer. Ammonia gas traps were installed across the soil surface. Frequent measurements were performed during the first 28 days of soil-fertilizer incubation. The peak of ammonia volatilization from the soil occurred in the first week after the application of traditional urea, and two or three days later for urea with urease inhibitor. Ammonia loss was not always higher from conventional than from treated urea, nor from solid than from liquid fertilizers. Ammonia volatilization increased with increases in soil pH, temperature and N rate and was lower at the lowest (5 %) and highest (20 %) soil moisture content. For surface-applied fertilizers, the maximum daily N loss rate was 14 kg ha-1 and the total cumulative loss ranged from 2 to 50 % of the applied N, depending mainly on the physical state of the fertilizer, temperature and on soil moisture. Soil incorporation of urea fertilizers was the best option to minimize ammonia volatilization in all treatments.
Ehrhardt-Brocardo N.C.M.,Santa Catarina State University |
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the hydration pattern of landrace bean genotypes and their physiological quality. The hydration curve of eight landrace (BAFs 07, 13, 23, 42, 44, 50, 55, 81) and two commercial cultivars (IPR-88-Uirapurú and Iapar 81) genotypes was determined from seed moisture. Determination of initial physiological quality was performed by germination and vigor tests (seedling performance and accelerated aging). Characterization of the genotypes, regarding accelerated aging tests, showed that BAFs 13, 42, 55 and 81 had the highest physiological potential, whereas BAFs 07, 23, 44, 50 and the commercial cultivars had lower physiological quality. The hydration curve followed a triphasic pattern with radicle protrusion occurring between 21 and 27 hours after seed hydration. The percentage of reserves translocated to the seedling during formation showed that BAF 42 had the highest conversion efficiency compared to the smaller efficiencies of BAFs 23, 50 and Iapar 81. The seedling length test showed that BAFs 42 and 55 had the most vigorous seedlings, which was driven by the high percentage of reserves translocated to the seedling during formation. BAFs 23, 50 and the cultivar Iapar 81 showed lower reserve translocation, demonstrating that low mobilization potential leads to smaller seedlings. The hydration of bean seeds during germination was affected by physiological quality, as genotypes considered more vigorous exhibited higher hydration rates than those of the less vigorous genotypes.
Can the Glittre ADL test differentiate the functional capacity of COPD patients from that of healthy subjects? [O teste de AVD-Glittre é capaz de diferenciar a capacidade funcional de indivíduos com DPOC da de saudáveis?]
Correa K.S.,Federal University of Goais |
Karloh M.,Santa Catarina State University |
Martins L.Q.,Federal University of Uberlandia |
dos Santos K.,Physical Therapist |
Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia | Year: 2011
Background: The Glittre ADL (TGlittre) test is a specifically designed to assess functional limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, it is not known if it can differentiate the performance of these patients from healthy subjects. Objectives: To investigate whether the Glittre ADL test is able to differentiate the functional capacity of COPD patients from that of healthy subjects and to compare the cardiorespiratory response between Glittre ADL and the six-minute walk test (6MWT). Methods: The study included 10 patients with COPD (GOLD 2 to 4) and 10 healthy subjects matched by age who performed the following: spirometry pre-and post-bronchodilator, a Glittre ADL test and two 6MWT on two consecutive days. Results: The performance of COPD (FEV 1%pred= 38.1±11.8, age=64±10 years, BMI=23.7±5.2 kg/ m 2) was worse than the control group on TGlittre (5.26±2.9 min, 3.3±0.3 min, p<0.05) and 6MWT (434.97±105.18 m vs. 593.25±87.36 m, p<0.05). TGlittre correlated with the physical activity domain of the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) scale (r=0.67, p<0.05) and with 6MWT when the total sample was analyzed (r=-0.64, p<0.05). The COPD group had a statistically higher (p<0.05) increase in dyspnea (Borg scale) than the control group for both TGlittre and 6MWT, with a similar heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation variation in both groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The performance of COPD patients is worse than that of healthy subjects on the Glittre ADL test, with a greater increase in dyspnea and similar heart rates. © Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia.
Shibata M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina |
Coelho C.M.M.,UDESC |
de Oliveira L.M.,UDESC |
Revista Brasileira de Sementes | Year: 2012
This research was aimed at studying effects of storage and accelerated aging on germination and profile of storage proteins in Handroanthus albus seeds. These were stored into a cold chamber (± 8 °C; RH ± 40%) and after periods of 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of storage, were subjected to accelerated aging for 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours. Relationships between germination and proteins profile were assessed. Germination test was performed at 25 °C, under constant light. For protein extraction, 125 mg of seeds were macerated in 2 mL of extraction buffer (1M Tris- HCl; pH 8.8) and applied to SDS-PAGE polyacrylamide gel at 80 V.15 h-1. Twelve month storage, combined with 72 hours accelerated aging have increased germination in approximately 65% when compared to non-aged seeds or to seeds with 24 h of accelerated aging. Besides beneficial effects, degradation and synthesis of different proteins were observed. It was concluded that germination of Handroanthus albus seeds, when not subjected to accelerated aging, is favored by storage in cold chamber during three to six months, or from nine to 12 months when subjected to accelerated aging process. Storage proteins may be associated to those increases, and hence further studies are needed.
Nava G.,Sao Joaquim Experimental Station |
Ernani P.R.,Santa Catarina State University |
de Sa A.A.,UDESC |
Pereira A.J.,Sao Joaquim Experimental Station
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2012
Gypsum does not affect the soil negative charges and maintains sulfate in the soil solution, making it one of the cheapest products to increase Ca activity in soil solution, especially in the deeper soil layers. Higher Ca levels in the soil solution can increase the uptake of this nutrient by apple trees, reducing the risk of physiological disorders caused by Ca deficiency. This study assessed the effect of long-term gypsum application on some soil properties and on the chemical composition of leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to fruit disorders associated with low Ca. The experiment was conducted in São Joaquim, in the South of Brazil, from 2001 to 2009. Gypsum rates of 0, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 t ha-1 were annually broadcast over the soil surface, without incorporation, in an apple orchard with cultivar 'Catarina', planted in 1997. Gypsum application over eight consecutive years had no effect on soil exchangeable K and Al to a depth of 80 cm, but increased exchangeable Ca in the sampled layers (0-10, 10-20, 40-60 and 60-80 cm), while exchangeable Mg decreased only in the surface layer (0-20 cm). Gypsum did not affect the concentration of any nutrient in the fruits, including Ca. The same was verified in the leaves, except for Mg which decreased with increased gypsum rate. Despite increasing the availability of Ca in the soil profile to a depth of 80 cm, gypsum was not effective to increase the Ca content in leaves and fruits of an apple cultivar susceptible to Ca deficiency grown in an appropriately limed soil.
Soccol O.J.,UDESC |
Cardoso C.O.,UDESC |
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010
In this study, monthly rainfall time-series with 80 years of collected data were analyzed and adjusted using gamma distribution in order to determine the expected monthly rainfall for Lages, in the State of Santa Cararina. The method of adjustment of model was used to estimate α and β parameters of gamma distribution, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test assessed the model's fitting to the data. Gamma distribution fitted to observed data of all months of the year (p < 0.05). From the adjusted distribution, the monthly rainfall was estimated for the probability levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 90 and 95%, which correspond to occurrence of probable minimum precipitation P(X > x). The results showed that the monthly mean rainfall, for all months of the year, occurred at probability level of 31.93% with variation coefficient of 3.63%. Considering these results, it is proved that the found mean values should not be used as parameters in agricultural projects. For all months of the year, the difference between monthly mean rainfall and probable rainfall were 64.49 mm (51.3%) and 73.03 mm (58.1%), at probability levels of 75 and 80% respectively.
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010
Present work examines a new mathematical model to predict the onset of localized necking in the industrial processes of sheet metal forming such as biaxial stretching. Sheet metal formability is usually assessed experimentally by testing such as the Nakajima test to obtain the Forming Limit Curve, FLC, which is an essential material parameter necessary to numerical simulations by FEM. The Forming Limit Diagram or "Forming Principal Strain Map" shows the experimental FLC which is the plot of principal true strains in the sheet metal surface, ε1 and ε2, occurring at critical points obtained in laboratory formability tests or in the fabrication process. Two types of undesirable rupture mechanisms can occur in sheet metal forming products: localized necking and shear induced fracture. Therefore, two kinds of limit strain curves can be plotted: the local necking limit curve FLC-N and the shear fracture limit curve FLC-S. Localized necking is theoretically anticipated to initiate at a thickness defect fin=hib/hia inside the grooved sheet thickness hia, but only at the instability point of maximum load. The inception of grooving on the sheet surface evolves from instability point to localized necking and final rupture, during further sheet metal straining. Work hardening law is defined for a strain and strain rate material by the effective stress σ̄= σo(1+βε̄)nεM. The average experimental hardening law curve for tensile tests at 0°, 45° and 90°, assuming isotropic plasticity, was used to analyze the plasticity behavior during the biaxial stretching of sheet metals. Theoretical predicted curves of local necking limits are plotted in the positive quadrant of FPSM for different defect values in and plasticity parameters. Limit strains are obtained from a software developed by the author. Some experimental results of forming limit curve obtained from experiments for IF steel sheets are compared with the theoretical predicted curves: the correlation is good. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.