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Outlining two novice heuristics for the symmetric TSP, inspired systemic thinking: Sacrifice short-term adaptive 2-opt (SCA2opt) and SCA_2opt_r. These arise from the systemic analysis of the rule of decision, nearest neighbour, identifying the archetype "Counterproductive solutions". SCA relies on that agent traveler, renounces at any given time immediately to a nearby city, and moves towards the second nearest available city. From there, it continues with the nearest neighbour rule. Each is the SCA (global search) operates a local search 2opt. Where as the binomial effectiveness and efficiency, the two new heuristics are shown promising in comparison multicriteria against 19 metaheuristics. It is evident that systemic thinking is a field of inspiration viable for the development of combinatorial optimization methods; emerging questions for future developments are expressed, enabling to continue to integrate elements of the classical optimization with the systemic thought; areas traditionally seen as antagonistic, but whose dialogue is favourable in this article. Source

Two problems in an autoparts firm are initially attributed to uncontrollable external factors ("external enemy" syndrome). This situation motivates the design of a methodology to guide kaizen event practices, supported by kaizen philosophy and methodology. The methodology consist of three steps: the first step, initiate, is designed to acquire employee commitment and participation and to develop initial employee skills. The second step, develop, analyzes the problem and implements the solution. The third process, sustain, is focused on sustaining the interventions, avoiding repetition of the problem and reinforcing the motivation of the participant. Deploying the methodology in both of the cases studied (1. Waiting time waste caused by a lack of supply and 2. Defects waste in printed sheets) allows to identify that the cause of those wastes were operational internal factors, instead of prior beliefs relating these facts to uncontrollable external reasons. The cause of waiting time was associated with the quantity of employees programmed into the assembly line, and the defective printings were related to storage and protection policies as well as the printing instructions. The impact of the interventions was satisfactory, because through the implementation of actions based on employee's creativity, common sense, consensus and participation, the problem's associated indicators are favored, including the waste's costs (Reduction of costs: 87% in waiting time costs; 60.5% in defective sheet costs). This study provides theoretical and methodological elements that make it adaptable to other contexts. The method requires top management commitment, employee comprehension of the change, employee training sessions, motivation and rewards, communication and learning strategies, among other factors, to solve problems and sustain the use of kaizen events. Source

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