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Albert R.,University of Szeged | Albert R.,Debrecen University | Kristof E.,Debrecen University | Zahuczky G.,UD GenoMed Ltd. | And 10 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2015

Background: The apopto-phagocytic gene expression patterns during clearance of dying cells in the retina and the effect of triamcinolone (TC) upon these processes have relevance to development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: ARPE-19 cells and primary human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) were induced to undergo cell death by anoikis and the clearance of these cells by living hRPE/ARPE-19 or human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) in the presence or absence of TC was quantified by flow cytometry. TaqMan low-density gene expression array determining known markers of phagocytosis and loss-of-function studies on selected apopto-phagocytic genes was carried out in HMDM engulfing anoikic cells. Results: The glucocorticoid TC had a profound phagocytosis-enhancing effect on HMDM engulfing anoikic ARPE-19 or hRPE cells, causing a selective upregulation of the Mer tyrosine kinase (MERTK) receptor, while decreasing the expression of the AXL receptor tyrosine kinase and thrombospondin-1 (THSB-1). The key role of the MERTK could be demonstrated in HMDM engulfing dying cells using gene silencing as well as blocking antibodies. Similar pathways were found upregulated in living ARPE-19 engulfing anoikic ARPE-19 cells. Gas6 treatment enhanced phagocytosis in TC-treated HMDMs. Conclusions: Specific agonists of the Mertk receptor may have a potential role as phagocytosis enhancers in the retina and serve as future targets for AMD therapy. General significance: The use of Gas6 as enhancer of retinal phagocytosis via the MerTK receptor, alone or in combination with other specific ligands of the tyrosine kinase receptors' family may have a potential role in AMD therapy. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source


Csosz E.,Debrecen University | Boross P.,Debrecen University | Csutak A.,Debrecen University | Csutak A.,InnoTears Ltd. | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2012

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new cases of legal blindness among adults in the developed countries. Approximately 40% of all people with diabetes have diabetic retinopathy and 5% of these have sight-threatening form. As the advanced stage, where there is a high risk for vision loss, can develop without any serious symptoms, sometimes it is hard to detect it. A non invasive method to detect biomarkers characteristic for diabetic retinopathy from the tear fluid was developed. Tear samples from diabetic patients with no retinopathy, non proliferative and proliferative stages of diabetic retinopathy were analyzed and the protein content of each sample was compared to the protein content of tear pool from healthy volunteers. The samples were labeled with iTRAQ fourplex labels and were analyzed with nanoHPLC coupled ESI-MS/MS mass spectrometry. The lipocalin 1, lactotransferrin, lacritin, lysozyme C, lipophilin A and immunoglobulin lambda chain were identified as possible biomarker candidates with significantly higher relative levels in the tear of patients with diabetic retinopathy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Mesko B.,Debrecen University | Zahuczky G.,Debrecen University | Zahuczky G.,UD GenoMed Ltd. | Nagy L.,Debrecen University | Nagy L.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences
New Biotechnology | Year: 2012

The population of the world has recently passed the 7 billion milestone and as the cost of human genome sequencing is rapidly declining, sequence data of billions of people should be accessible much sooner than anyone would have predicted 10. years ago. This will form the basis of personalised medicine. However it is still not clear, even in principle, whether these data, combined with data of the expression of one's genome in various cells and tissues relevant to different diseases, could be used effectively in clinical medicine and healthcare, or in predicting responses to different therapies. Therefore this is an important issue which needs to be addressed before more resources are wasted on less than informative studies and surveys simply because technologies exist.As a typical example, we have selected and summarise here key studies from the biomedical literature that focus on gene expression profiling of the response to biologic therapies in peripheral blood and biopsy samples in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondylarthropathy, inflammatory bowel diseases and psoriasis.We also present the state of the biotechnology market from a European perspective, discuss how spin-offs leverage the power of genomic technologies and describe how they might contribute to personalised medicine.As ethical, legal and social issues are essential in the area of genomics, we analysed these aspects and present here the European situation with a special focus on Hungary. We propose that the synergy of these three issues: pharmacogenomics, biotechnology and regulatory issues should be considered a triad necessary to succeed in personalised medicine. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Czimmerer Z.,Debrecen University | Hulvely J.,AstridResearch Ltd. | Simandi Z.,Debrecen University | Varallyay E.,Plant Developmental Biology Group | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s. © 2013 Czimmerer et al. Source


Poliska S.,Debrecen University | Poliska S.,UD GenoMed Ltd. | Vancsa A.,Debrecen University | Szekanecz Z.,Debrecen University | And 7 more authors.
Genome Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Biological therapies have been introduced for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease (CD). The efficacy of biologics differs from patient to patient. Moreover these therapies are rather expensive, therefore treatment of primary non-responders should be avoided.Method: We addressed this issue by combining gene expression profiling and biostatistical approaches. We performed peripheral blood global gene expression profiling in order to filter the genome for target genes in cohorts of 20 CD and 19 RA patients. Then RT-quantitative PCR validation was performed, followed by multivariate analyses of genes in independent cohorts of 20 CD and 15 RA patients, in order to identify sets ofinterrelated genes that can separate responders from non-responders to the humanized chimeric anti-TNFalpha antibody infliximab at baseline.Results: Gene panels separating responders from non-responders were identified using leave-one-out cross-validation test, and a pool of genes that should be tested on larger cohorts was created in both conditions.Conclusions: Our data show that peripheral blood gene expression profiles are suitable for determining gene panels with high discriminatory power to differentiate responders from non-responders in infliximab therapy at baseline in CD and RA, which could be cross-validated successfully. Biostatistical analysis of peripheral blood gene expression data leads to the identification of gene panels that can help predict responsiveness of therapy and support the clinical decision-making process. © 2013 Mesko et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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