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Rabanales, Spain

Palomares-Rius J.E.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Castillo P.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Navas-Cortes J.A.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | Jimenez-Diaz R.M.,CSIC - Institute for Sustainable Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2011

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the main soil-borne disease limiting chickpea production. Management of this disease is achieved mainly by the use of resistant cultivars. However, co-infection of a Foc-resistant plant by the fungus and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia (Ma) causes breakdown of the resistance and thus limits its efficacy in the control of Fusarium wilt. In this work we aimed to reveal key aspects of chickpea:. Foc:. Ma interactions, studying fungal- and nematode-induced changes in root proteins, using chickpea lines 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216. K' that show similar resistant (Foc race 5) and susceptible (Ma) responses to either pathogen alone but a differential response after co-infection with both pathogens. 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216. K' chickpea plants were challenged with Foc race 5 and Ma, either in single or in combined inoculations, and the root proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using three biological replicates. Pairwise comparisons of treatments indicated that 47 protein spots in 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 31 protein spots in 'ICC 14216. K' underwent significant changes in intensity. The responsive protein spots tentatively identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS (27 spots for 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 15 spots for 'ICC 14216. K') indicated that same biological functions were involved in the responses of either chickpea line to Foc race 5 and Ma, although common as well as line-specific responsive proteins were found within the different biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study at the root proteome level of chickpea response to a biotic stress imposed by single and joint infections by two major soil-borne pathogens. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Whitaker K.E.,Yale University | Van Dokkum P.G.,Yale University | Brammer G.,Yale University | Kriek M.,Princeton University | And 10 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

With a complete, mass-selected sample of quiescent galaxies from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, we study the stellar populations of the oldest and most massive galaxies (> 1011 M⊙) to high redshift. The sample includes 570 quiescent galaxies selected based on their extinction-corrected U - V colors out to z = 2.2, with accurate photometric redshifts, σz/(1 + z) ∼ 2%, and rest-frame colors, σU-V ∼ 0.06 mag. We measure an increase in the intrinsic scatter of the rest-frame U - V colors of quiescent galaxies with redshift. This scatter in color arises from the spread in ages of the quiescent galaxies, where we see both relatively quiescent red, old galaxies and quiescent blue, younger galaxies toward higher redshift. The trends between color and age are consistent with the observed composite rest-frame spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these galaxies. The composite SEDs of the reddest and bluest quiescent galaxies are fundamentally different, with remarkably well-defined 4000 Å and Balmer breaks, respectively. Some of the quiescent galaxies may be up to four times older than the average age and up to the age of the universe, if the assumption of solar metallicity is correct. By matching the scatter predicted by models that include growth of the red sequence by the transformation of blue galaxies to the observed intrinsic scatter, the data indicate that most early-type galaxies formed their stars at high redshift with a burst of star formation prior to migrating to the red sequence. The observed U - V color evolution with redshift is weaker than passive evolution predicts; possible mechanisms to slow the color evolution include increasing amounts of dust in quiescent galaxies toward higher redshift, red mergers at z ≲ 1, and a frosting of relatively young stars from star formation at later times. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Bucci C.,UNICAL | Munoz-Diez C.,UCO | Muzzalupo I.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | Perri E.,Italian Agricultural Research Council | And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Olive is a Mediterranean fruit species that is cultivated mainly for oil but also for canned fruits. In addition to the international olive germplasm collection at Cordoba (Spain) preserving major olive cultivars in the world, several collections exist in other Mediterranean countries. In particular, the olive germplasm collection located in the "CRA-Olive growing and oil industry research centre" (CRA-OLI, Italy) contains the major part of the Italian olive germplasm. The goal of such collections is to safeguard all cultivars, and particularly the minor ones, to avoid a loss in genetic diversity and to offer an interesting genetic basis for breeding programs. We used molecular markers to characterize all accessions and to study genetic relationships between cultivars. More than 100 olive accessions were genotyped using 12 SSR markers. This study allowed us to construct a molecular data-base for the reference collection and to analyze genetic diversity for further prospecting, and to introducing new olive accessions. Source

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