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Harra L.K.,UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory | Sterling A.C.,NASA | Sterling A.C.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency | Gomory P.,Slovak Academy of Sciences | Veronig A.,University of Graz
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2011

We observed a coronal wave (EIT wave) on 2011 February 16, using EUV imaging data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and EUV spectral data from the Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The wave accompanied an M1.6 flare that produced a surge and a coronal mass ejection (CME). EIS data of the wave show a prominent redshifted signature indicating line-of-sight velocities of 20kms-1 or greater. Following the main redshifted wave front, there is a low-velocity period (and perhaps slightly blueshifted), followed by a second redshift somewhat weaker than the first; this progression may be due to oscillations of the EUV atmosphere set in motion by the initial wave front, although alternative explanations may be possible. Along the direction of the EIS slit the wave front's velocity was 500kms -1, consistent with its apparent propagation velocity projected against the solar disk as measured in the AIA images, and the second redshifted feature had propagation velocities between 200 and 500kms-1. These findings are consistent with the observed wave being generated by the outgoing CME, as in the scenario for the classic Moreton wave. This type of detailed spectral study of coronal waves has hitherto been a challenge, but is now possible due to the availability of concurrent AIA and EIS data. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..

Madjarska M.S.,College Hill | Madjarska M.S.,UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory | Huang Z.,College Hill | Doyle J.G.,College Hill | Subramanian S.,College Hill
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. We report on the plasma properties of small-scale transient events identified in the quiet Sun, coronal holes and their boundaries. Aims. We aim at deriving the physical characteristics of events that were identified as small-scale transient brightenings in XRT images. Methods. We used spectroscopic co-observations from SUMER/SoHO and EIS/Hinode combined with high-cadence imaging data from XRT/Hinode. We measured Doppler shifts using single and multiple Gaussian fits of the transition region and coronal lines as well as electron densities and temperatures. We combined co-temporal imaging and spectroscopy to separate brightening expansions from plasma flows. Results. The transient brightening events in coronal holes and their boundaries were found to be very dynamical, producing high-density outflows at high speeds. Most of these events represent X-ray jets from pre-existing or newly emerging coronal bright points at X-ray temperatures. The average electron density of the jets is log 10 N e 8.76 cm -3 while in the flaring site it is log 10 N e 9.51 cm -3. The jet temperatures reach a maximum of 2.5 MK but in the majority of the cases the temperatures do not exceed 1.6 MK. The footpoints of jets have maximum temperatures of 2.5 MK, though in a single event scanned a minute after the flaring the measured temperature was 12 MK. The jets are produced by multiple microflaring in the transition region and corona. Chromospheric emission was only detected in their footpoints and was only associated with downflows. The Doppler shift measurements in the quiet Sun transient brightenings confirmed that these events do not produce jet-like phenomena. The plasma flows in these phenomena remain trapped in closed loops. Conclusions. We can conclude that the dynamic day-by-day and even hour-by-hour small-scale evolution of coronal hole boundaries reported in Paper I is indeed related to coronal bright points. The XRT observations reported in Paper II revealed that these changes are associated with the dynamic evolution of coronal bright points producing multiple jets during their lifetime until their full disappearance. We demonstrate here through spectroscopic EIS and SUMER co-observations combined with high-cadence imaging information that the co-existence of open and closed magnetic fields results in multiple energy depositions, which propel high-density plasma along open magnetic field lines. We conclude from the physical characteristics obtained in this study that X-ray jets are important candidates for the source of the slow solar wind. This, however, does not exclude the possibility that these jets are also the microstreams observed in the fast solar wind, as recently suggested. © ESO, 2012.

Harra L.K.,UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory | Abramenko V.I.,Big Bear Solar Observatory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, η(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, α, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v nt, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v nt (which we called V upp nt) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 Å. A 2day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, η(t), precedes the upper range of the v nt with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, α, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V upp nt with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Chen F.,Nanjing University | Ding M.D.,Nanjing University | Chen P.F.,Nanjing University | Harra L.K.,UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

We report a spectroscopic analysis of an EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) wave event that occurred in active region 11081 on 2010 June 12 and was associated with an M2.0 class flare. The wave propagated nearly circularly. The southeastern part of the wave front passed over an upflow region near a magnetic bipole. Using EUV Imaging Spectrometer raster observations for this region, we studied the properties of plasma dynamics in the wave front, as well as the interaction between the wave and the upflow region. We found a weak blueshift for the Fe XII λ195.12 and Fe XIII λ202.04 lines in the wave front. The local velocity along the solar surface, which is deduced from the line-of-sight velocity in the wave front and the projection effect, is much lower than the typical propagation speed of the wave. A more interesting finding is that the upflow and non-thermal velocities in the upflow region are suddenly diminished after the transit of the wave front. This implies a significant change of magnetic field orientation when the wave passed. As the lines in the upflow region are redirected, the velocity along the line of sight is diminished as a result. We suggest that this scenario is more in accordance with what was proposed in the field-line stretching model of EIT waves. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Chen P.F.,Nanjing University | Harra L.K.,UCL Mullard Space Science Laboratory | Fang C.,Nanjing University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2014

The dynamics of a filament channel are observed with imaging and spectroscopic telescopes before and during the filament eruption on 2011 January 29. The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral observations reveal that there are no EUV counterparts of the Hα counter-streamings in the filament channel, implying that the ubiquitous Hα counter-streamings found by previous research are mainly due to longitudinal oscillations of filament threads, which are not in phase between each other. However, there exist larger-scale patchy counter-streamings in EUV along the filament channel from one polarity to the other, implying that there is another component of unidirectional flow (in the range of ±10 km s-1) inside each filament thread in addition to the implied longitudinal oscillation. Our results suggest that the flow direction of the larger-scale patchy counter-streaming plasma in the EUV is related to the intensity of the plage or active network, with the upflows being located at brighter areas of the plage and downflows at the weaker areas. We propose a new method to determine the chirality of an erupting filament on the basis of the skewness of the conjugate filament drainage sites. This method suggests that the right-skewed drainage corresponds to sinistral chirality, whereas the left-skewed drainage corresponds to dextral chirality. © 2014. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

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