Entity

Time filter

Source Type

UCI
Irvine, CA, United States

Vaziri N.D.,UCI
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2016

Normal HDL activity confers cardiovascular and overall protection by mediating reverse cholesterol transport and through its potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antithrombotic functions. Serum lipid profile, as well as various aspects of HDL metabolism, structure, and function can be profoundly altered in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria or chronic kidney disease (CKD). These abnormalities can, in turn, contribute to the progression of cardiovascular complications and various other comorbidities, such as foam cell formation, atherosclerosis, and/or glomerulosclerosis, in affected patients. The presence and severity of proteinuria and renal insufficiency, as well as dietary and drug regimens, pre-existing genetic disorders of lipid metabolism, and renal replacement therapies (including haemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and renal transplantation) determine the natural history of lipid disorders in patients with kidney disease. Despite the adverse effects associated with dysregulated reverse cholesterol transport and advances in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, safe and effective therapeutic interventions are currently lacking. This Review provides an overview of HDL metabolism under normal conditions, and discusses the features, mechanisms, and consequences of HDL abnormalities in patients with nephrotic syndrome or advanced CKD. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

Scientists have long sought to use nanowires in batteries. Thousands of times thinner than a human hair, they're highly conductive and feature a large surface area for the storage and transfer of electrons. However, these filaments are extremely fragile and don't hold up well to repeated discharging and recharging, or cycling. In a typical lithium-ion battery, they expand and grow brittle, which leads to cracking. UCI researchers have solved this problem by coating a gold nanowire in a manganese dioxide shell and encasing the assembly in an electrolyte made of a Plexiglas-like gel. The combination is reliable and resistant to failure. The study leader, UCI doctoral candidate Mya Le Thai, cycled the testing electrode up to 200,000 times over three months without detecting any loss of capacity or power and without fracturing any nanowires. The findings were published today in the American Chemical Society's Energy Letters. Hard work combined with serendipity paid off in this case, according to senior author Reginald Penner. "Mya was playing around, and she coated this whole thing with a very thin gel layer and started to cycle it," said Penner, chair of UCI's chemistry department. "She discovered that just by using this gel, she could cycle it hundreds of thousands of times without losing any capacity." "That was crazy," he added, "because these things typically die in dramatic fashion after 5,000 or 6,000 or 7,000 cycles at most." The researchers think the goo plasticizes the metal oxide in the battery and gives it flexibility, preventing cracking. "The coated electrode holds its shape much better, making it a more reliable option," Thai said. "This research proves that a nanowire-based battery electrode can have a long lifetime and that we can make these kinds of batteries a reality."


News Article | March 7, 2016
Site: http://www.techtimes.com/rss/sections/science.xml

3D-printed model can be re-created with impressive accuracy by recording the printing sounds, scientists have found. These 3D printers create information-carrying acoustic sounds during printing, which determine the accurate movements of the printer nozzle. Researchers said that 3D printers can be hacked by recording its printing sounds by using any recording device, including a smartphone. The sounds can then be reverse engineered to create a duplicate of the 3D-printed object. Researchers from the University of California, Irvine (UCI) accidentally discovered this 3D printer hack and security risk last year during their research on the link between energy flows and information. The fundamental laws of physics state that energy is converted from one form to a new one – for instance – electromagnetic energy to kinetic, explained UCI's computer scientist and electrical engineer Mohammad Al Faruque. Energy is not consumed, it changes its forms. "Some forms of energy are translated in meaningful and useful ways; others become emissions, which may unintentionally disclose secret information," added Al Faruque, the director of the university's Advanced Integrated Cyber-Physical Systems Lab. In the demonstration, the research team copied the 3D printer sounds as the machine creates a key-shaped object. The recorded sounds were then used to re-create the object with almost 90 percent accuracy. Al Faruque said that people who work at various manufacturing plants may not be monitored closely for smartphone usage or any other recording device, which can potentially lead to huge financial loses if the product information and process are copied during the creation of prototypes. Al Faruque advised that workers shouldn't be allowed to carry smartphones during the prototype development. He also added that engineers should develop ways on how to mask the 3D printer's acoustic sounds. In the meantime, the research team suggested the addition of a device that creates white noise at the facilities to help protect intellectual property. Al Faruque's team created a video presentation about their discovery titled "Acoustic Side-Channel Attacks on Additive Manufacturing Systems." The research will be presented at the International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems to be held in Vienna this April.


News Article | April 22, 2016
Site: http://www.cemag.us/rss-feeds/all/rss.xml/all

University of California, Irvine researchers have invented nanowire-based battery material that can be recharged hundreds of thousands of times, moving us closer to a battery that would never require replacement. The breakthrough work could lead to commercial batteries with greatly lengthened lifespans for computers, smartphones, appliances, cars and spacecraft. Scientists have long sought to use nanowires in batteries. Thousands of times thinner than a human hair, they’re highly conductive and feature a large surface area for the storage and transfer of electrons. However, these filaments are extremely fragile and don’t hold up well to repeated discharging and recharging, or cycling. In a typical lithium-ion battery, they expand and grow brittle, which leads to cracking. UCI researchers have solved this problem by coating a gold nanowire in a manganese dioxide shell and encasing the assembly in an electrolyte made of a Plexiglas-like gel. The combination is reliable and resistant to failure. The study leader, UCI doctoral candidate Mya Le Thai, cycled the testing electrode up to 200,000 times over three months without detecting any loss of capacity or power and without fracturing any nanowires. The findings were published in the American Chemical Society’s Energy Letters. Hard work combined with serendipity paid off in this case, according to senior author Reginald Penner. “Mya was playing around, and she coated this whole thing with a very thin gel layer and started to cycle it,” says Penner, chair of UCI’s chemistry department. “She discovered that just by using this gel, she could cycle it hundreds of thousands of times without losing any capacity.” “That was crazy,” he adds, “because these things typically die in dramatic fashion after 5,000 or 6,000 or 7,000 cycles at most.” Source: University of California, Irvine


News Article | April 27, 2016
Site: http://cleantechnica.com

The lead researcher at UC-Irvine who coated a gold nanowire with a manganese dioxide shell reportedly was able to cycle a testing electrode about 200,000 times in 3 months without observing a loss of power. “Mya was playing around, and she coated this whole thing with a very thin gel layer and started to cycle it. She discovered that just by using this gel, she could cycle it hundreds of thousands of times without losing any capacity. That was crazy because these things typically die in dramatic fashion after 5,000 or 6,000 or 7,000 cycles at most,” explained the chair of UCI’s chemistry department. Coating the fragile, tiny nanowires also help make them stronger, so they don’t break as easily. The study paper is here if you would like to read it. Creating a material with a dramatically longer lifespan obviously would be a great boon for devices that use batteries, like laptops, smartphones, electric vehicles, and so forth. For electric vehicles, obviously, battery life has been an obstacle for greater adoption, but if it was possible for a battery to last thousands, tens of thousands of even 100,000 cycles longer, this kind of breakthrough could change the world in a number of ways. The study lead is Mya Le Thai. She stated: “The coated electrode holds its shape much better, making it a more reliable option. This research proves that a nanowire-based battery electrode can have a long lifetime and that we can make these kinds of batteries a reality.” She is a doctoral student in chemistry at UC-Irvine. Lab breakthroughs don’t always translate into commercially viable products, so it isn’t that clear at the moment what the next steps might be. Some universities work with their students via technology transfer staff who help them with things like patents, licensing, or even potential investors.   Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  

Discover hidden collaborations