Soma K.,Wageningen University |
Ramos J.,IPMA Former IPIMAR |
Bergh O.,IMR |
Schulze T.,TI |
And 8 more authors.
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014
Marine spatial management is challenged by complex situations in European countries where multiple stakeholder interests and many management options have to be balanced. EU policy initiatives such as the proposed Marine Spatial Planning Directive, are in different ways targeting area allocation in European waters. In this circumstance, EU marine management needs assessments based on a satisfactory evaluation framework design that can ensure a transparent treatment of different types of information including interests, values, and facts. The main goal of this article is to introduce an evaluation framework applicable to marine management in European countries. This socalled CoExist framework maps out different types of relevant knowledge to assess future possibilities for use or no-use of marine areas and links this with appropriate management measures. The CoExist framework is based on the principles of ensuring transparent treatment of different types of information as well as appropriate stakeholder representation which can ensure legitimacy. Empirical findings in six European case studies have been obtained while conducting the CoExist framework. Applying the basic principles of the CoExist framework when planning future management directions of the coexistence of multiple activities in the long-run will expectedly affect the ecological and social-cultural goals by counterbalancing the economic ones. © International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2013. All rights reserved.
O'Keeffe J.M.,National College of Ireland |
Cummins V.,University College Cork |
Devoy R.J.N.,University College Cork |
Lyons D.,UCC |
Gault J.,University College Cork
Marine Policy | Year: 2016
Seaports as critical shore-based infrastructure are particularly vulnerable to impacts such as sea level rise and increasing incidents of severe weather events. In excess of ninety percent of global trade by volume is transported by sea. In Ireland, seaports are of strategic importance to the national economy. As an island nation, ninety eight percent of trade by volume comes through its seaports. Climate issues facing Irish ports include increasing storminess, such as the Atlantic storms experienced in the winter of 2014. Ireland provides a particularly valuable case study as the scale of Irish port sizes, analysed in this research, range from 500,000 to 30 million throughput tonnage. This tonnage range, is more typical of port sizes globally, and adds relevance to the study. The specific objectives of this paper are to establish the readiness of the seaport sector in Ireland to build adaptive capacity to respond to climate change and to assess lessons from and for Ireland in the context of international best practice. The research identified a lack of awareness and understanding of climate change amongst the sample population of seventy senior managers (comprising of national regulators and local authorities; commercial port harbour companies; and indigenous and multinational industries located in the port hinterland), as representatives of the maritime sector in Ireland. Evidence of a knowledge gap was identified from in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted over a twelve month period. Many industry stakeholders were actually implementing adaptation measures within their organisational strategies, unaware of the explicit links with climate adaptation. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.
Meghen K.,St Jamess Hospital |
Sweeney C.,St Jamess Hospital |
Irish Medical Journal | Year: 2013
Although females represent a high proportion of medical graduates, women are under represented at consultant level in many hospital specialties. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken which established female representation at all levels of the medical workforce in Ireland in 2011 and documented the personal experiences of a sample of female specialists. The proportions of female trainees at initial and higher specialist training levels are 765(53%) and 656(55%) respectively but falls to 1,685(32%) at hospital specialist level (p< 0.0001). Significantly fewer women are found at specialist as compared to training levels in anaesthesia (p = 0.04), emergency medicine (p = 0.02), medicine (p < 0.0001), obstetrics/gynaecology (p = 0.0005), paediatrics (p = 0.006), pathology p = 0.03) and surgery (p < 0.0001). The lowest proportion of female doctors at specialist level exists in the combined surgical specialties 88(10%); the highest is in psychiatry 380(53%). Qualitative findings indicate that females who complete specialist training are wary of pursuing either flexible training or part time work options and experience discrimination at a number of levels. They appear to be resilient to this and tolerate it. Balancing motherhood and work commitments is the biggest challenge faced by female doctors with children and causes some to change career pathways.
News Article | June 29, 2016
The Facebook privacy notice hoax is back and ready to trap willing victims. A word to the wise — don't waste your time copy pasting the privacy message on your status. The fake message in question that has gone viral uses legal jargon and claims to safeguard the user's content, as Facebook is supposedly going to make private posts public. Do not fall for this scam, as it has surfaced on the social media site earlier as well — 2012, 2014 and 2015. The Rome Statute hoax privacy notice message seems to have gotten a new lease of life on the social media site and follows pretty much the same format. The declaration (which you may have seen plenty of people on your friend list on Facebook share) in its new avatar is as follows: This is essentially a recycled version of the fake privacy notice message that surfaced in 2015 and read as follows: "I do not give Facebook or any entities associated with Facebook permission to use my pictures, information, or posts, both past and future. By this statement, I give notice to Facebook it is strictly forbidden to disclose, copy, distribute, or take any other action against me based on this profile and/or its contents. The content of this profile is private and confidential information. The violation of privacy can be punished by law (UCC 1-308-11 308-103 and the Rome Statute)." While the disclaimer is being posted as a status update by many people (yet again) in a bid to protect themselves, Facebook has addressed the copyright meme post via a statement in the past. At the time, the site affirmed that the rumor is false. Interestingly, this is not the only privacy notice hoax that has been hounding the social networking sites' users. Another scam that is looking to trick Facebook users is the "price grid" message, which previously surfaced in 2012 and has now made a comeback on the social networking site. The scam leads people into believing that Facebook will be charging a fee from its users for using the social networking platform. The hoax message goes something like this: "Facebook just released their price grid for membership. $9.99 per month for gold member services, $6.99 per month for silver member services, $3.99 per month for bronze member services, free if you copy and paste this message before midnight tonight. When you sign on tomorrow morning you will be ... prompted for payment info." The message goes on to say that the wall icon will turn blue, and Facebook will become free. What if you don't spread the word? The account will be deleted if you do not make a payment! We suggest you do not fall for any of these scams, and if paranoid, it is better to go to the privacy settings on Facebook and turn it to the "only me" option. This would be more effective than sharing the fake privacy protection notice for sure. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
Home > Press > Leti and Partners in Silicon Photonics Supply-Chain Project Announce Developments on Three Mature Platforms: PLAT4M Project Focused on Speeding Industrialization of the Technology Abstract: CEA-Leti and its partners in the European FP7 project PLAT4M today announced they have built three silicon photonics platforms. The four-year project, which launched in 2013, aims at building a European-based supply chain in silicon photonics and speeding industrialization of the technology. PLAT4M, which is funded by a European Commission grant of 10.2 million euros, includes 15 leading European R&D institutes and CMOS companies, key industrial and research organizations in design and packaging, as well as end users in different application fields, to build the complete supply chain. Midway through the project, the consortium has developed advanced technologies and tools by building a coherent design flow, demonstrating manufacturability of elementary devices and process integration, and developing a packaging toolkit. The supply chain is based on technology platforms of Leti, imec and STMicroelectronics, supported by a unified design environment. The high level of maturity of the technology offered by these platforms makes them readily accessible to a broad circle of users in a fabless model. Imecs silicon photonics platform, based on 200mm substrates, has matured thanks to the PLAT4M project. The platform is based on SOI substrates with 220nm crystalline silicon on a 2,000nm buried oxide. During this project the existing fabrication processes and integration flow have been fine tuned to have stable and repeatable performance for all photonics building blocks (couplers, waveguides, phase shifters, photodetectors). This feeds the process design kits robust performance specifications and guarantees quality and first-time-right designs for the platforms fabless users for high data-rate telecom and non-telecom applications. PLAT4M partners Thales, Polytec and TNO already are using the technology. Beyond the 200mm platform, imec has pushed the limits of silicon photonics, exploiting advanced optical lithography with its 193nm immersion lithography scanner. It also has demonstrated very low propagation loss (~0.6dB/cm) for fully etched waveguides with excellent within-wafer linewidth control (standard deviation Using the imec platform, Thales demonstrated a coherent combination of laser beams (CBC). Ultimately, this application aims at producing high-power, high-energy laser sources for sensing, industry or fundamental physics. The CBC rationale is to push the limits of single laser emitters (typically fiber amplifiers) by using a large number of amplifiers and coherently adding the output beams. The coherent addition requires locking the phase of all the amplifying channels. With the number of channels, potentially very large (from tens to thousands), an integrated technology is a major concern in terms of possible industrial products. The first generation CBC demonstrator of PLAT4M, which was packaged by Tyndall UCC, included a one-to-16 channel splitter tree, plus 16 independent thermal phase modulators. The CBC experiment showed the successful coherent addition of 16 laser beams at 1.55µm. Leti has developed a new photonic platform based on 200mm SOI wafers. This process offers multilevel silicon patterning that allows the design of various passive and active devices (e.g. modulator and photodiode) with thermal tuning capability. Two AlCu levels are available for routing. A process design kit (PDK) is available for circuit design and an MPW service will be proposed in 2016. State-of-the-art performances have been demonstrated: insertion losses are below 2dB/cm for monomode waveguide and below 0.2dB/cm for multimode devices. Germanium photodiode responsivity is > 0.75A/W for a bandwidth >30GHz. Mach-Zehnder modulator VpLp is in the 2V.cm range for 2V operation with an E/O bandwidth > 25GHz. Moreover, Leti and III-V Lab have developed integrated hybrid III-V lasers and electro-absorption modulators (EAM) on silicon using a wafer-bonding technique. The hybrid lasers operate in the single-mode regime and the EAMs exhibit an extinction ratio higher than 20 dB with a drive voltage lower than 2V. Clear eye diagram has been achieved at a bit-rate of 25 Gb/s, confirming strong potential for telecom applications. During the project, ST developed an additional silicon-photonic platform in 300mm technology to be used as an R&D tool for proof-of-concept purposes. The technology, called DAPHNE (Datacom Advanced PHotonic Nanoscale Environment), is designed for evaluating new devices and subsystems for demonstration. DAPHNE is a flexible platform that perfectly fits R&D needs. While developing it, ST demonstrated wavelength-division-multiplexing solutions using arrayed waveguide gratings, echelle gratings, cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometers and side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonators. Some of the configurations are designed for the 100GBase-LR4 standard, and the experimental characterization results show insertion losses below 0.5dB and channel cross-talks above 25dB for a band flatness of 2nm. Furthermore, proper operation of receiver-and-transmitter blocks to be interfaced to optical devices above them has been demonstrated at 28Gbps, making use of 65nm-node technologies. The PLAT4M WP2 work has led to a qualitative leap of the design flow for silicon photonics, allowing the photonics community to design more complex and more robust circuits. The electronics OpenAccess standard for data sharing between design-automation tools includes an extension for silicon photonics in a beta phase today. Simulation capabilities were leveraged thanks to an extensive characterization effort from the three partner fabs and thanks to the statistical data gathered for variability prediction. Paris-Sud University has studied theoretically the behavior of different phase shifters and photodetectors for a time-efficient and precise modeling. Mentor Graphics and PhoeniX Software partners have improved phase-aware routing and tool interoperability. Verification and manufacturability have reached industry-requirement standards thanks to the development of new techniques based upon the Mentor Graphics® Calibre® platform that delivers layout-versus-schematic comparison (Calibre nmLVS), photonic rule checks (PRC) and curvilinear-aware design-rule checks (Calibre nmDRC). Mask preparation is also improving with better pattern-density control and mask correction. About PLAT4M Consortium Members Coordinated by Leti, the consortium consists of renowned technology providers, research institutes, end users and SMEs with excellent track records in advanced photonics technologies. At the design and process level, Leti and imec have been the most prominent European players in silicon photonics for a decade. Together with University of Paris-Sud, III-V Lab and TNO, they have demonstrated numerous scientific and technological breakthroughs. For building a complete design flow, Mentor Graphics, PhoeniX BV and Si2 are world leaders in EDA tools and work together to develop a common reference platform. STMicroelectronics (France and Italy) brings its vast experience in microelectronics, and it has been engaged for the past year in the development of silicon photonics at the industrial level. Tyndall-UCC and Aifotec are renowned experts in the field of optoelectronic packaging and work together on the implementation of packaging technologies developed within PLAT4M in a manufacturing environment. End-users like Polytec and Thales Research & Technology are driving the demonstrators development and assessing the use of silicon photonics in their applications fields. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.