UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd

Chennai, India

UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd

Chennai, India
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Sakthivel B.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Elayaraja R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sivakumar M.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sridhar R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017

Solenoids are electro mechanical actuators used in automotive industries as flow control valve. Solenoids replace the conventional mechanical valve since it is having a precise control and faster response. Solenoid is operated either in ON/OFF mode or Pulse Width Modulation mode (PWM). When operated in PWM at a given frequency, the solenoid undergoes finite number of repeated operations. A normally closed solenoid contains two critical parts, one is a plunger, which is a moving part and another is valve case, which is a static part. The plunger hits the valve case during repeated number of operations which undergo extreme wear. Since the functionality and performance of the solenoid mainly rely on the plunger and valve case, it is inevitable to have an optimum material selection in order to achieve higher durability. This paper illustrates the study of material selection for an air control solenoid used for two wheeler application. Two different material combinations were selected and three dimensional model was developed with the help of modeling software. Theoretical and finite element analysis (FEA) was done to evaluate the structural behavior of different materials. The numerical analysis was done using a commercial software ANSYS. The solenoids with two different material combinations were developed. Durability test was carried out on these samples to evaluate the life and to understand the effect of material characteristics. Based on the comparison of the theoretical, numerical and experimental test results, the plunger with SUS631 material is superior to S45C material. Hence the optimum material for the solenoid plunger to have higher durability is SUS631. © 2017 SAE International.


Balasubramaniyan S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Ramachandran S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Bashyam S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Kumar S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017

Solenoids are type of inductive actuators extensively used in mobility industries as flow control valves. Now a day, the conventional mechanical actuators are replaced by solenoids, because the solenoids have high precision control and faster response within a controlled magnetic field. Solenoids are classified into two types based on the mode of operation. Solenoid is operated either in ON/OFF mode for switching applications or in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) for high frequency applications. A solenoid consists of two critical parts, one is the reciprocating plunger and another is the static valve case. During higher number of repeated operations, the solenoid plunger hits the valve case and induces wear on the seating surface. The solenoids are also exposed to the corrosive environment in some applications. Since the functionality and performance of the solenoid mainly depends on the plunger and valve case, it is necessary to have an optimum material, heat treatment and surface coatings selection for plunger and valve case in order to achieve higher durability, wear protection and corrosion resistance. This paper emphasizes the study of material optimization for an Air control solenoid used in two wheeler application. The Air control solenoid is directly integrated into the fuel management system and hence it is highly exposed to the fuel vapour environment. In order to optimize the material for solenoid, various different material combinations with multiple surface coatings and heat treatment of plunger and valve case were selected and wear rate was predicted theoretically using wear prediction models. Also, the solenoids with different material, heat and surface treatment combinations of plunger and valve case were developed and operational durability test was carried out on these samples for higher number of cycles to understand the effect of material characteristics. Based on the comparison of the theoretical and experimental test results, the SUS304 valve case and the plunger made of SUM22 with heat treatment is having higher durability, wear protection and corrosion resistance as compared to other combinations. Copyright © 2017 SAE International and Copyright © 2017 SAE INDIA.


Suresh Kumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sakthivel B.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Srinivasan B.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sivanantham R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2017

The automotive industry in world is facing the problem of reduction of emissions coming out of the engine. Also, the stringent emission norms imposed by the regulating body for transition from BS IV to BS VI urges the auto makers to concentrate on new technologies to reduce the emissions. One of the major emissions coming out of the diesel engine is oxides of nitrogen (NOx) which is detrimental to human health. This NOx emission is formed when the combustion temperature of engine exceeds the threshold limit. There are several methods available to reduce these NOx emissions formed in-cylinder. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one such system, which reduces the NOx emission formed inside the engine by supplying a portion of the exhaust gases. By re-circulating exhaust gases, the air admitted to the engine is diluted. Further, due to the high latent heat of vaporization of water, water vapor tends to absorb more amount of heat that is generated during combustion. This in turn reduces the peak combustion temperature, which helps in reduction of NOx emissions from the engine. This study emphasizes the effect of critical flow parameter on performance of EGR. Though several design variables contribute to the functionality and performance of the EGR, valve angle is one such critical parameter taken for this study. Valve performs two major functions viz., leak proof closing of valve with valve seat and metering the designed flow rate into the engine. For this study, three dimensional model was developed using commercially available software. Flow path was extracted for doing the numerical analysis. Numerical analysis has been carried out in three cases to predict the flow rate of exhaust gases using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) commercial software. This enables the designer to understand the flow characteristics such as pressure and velocity in detail and helps to modify the design based on the flow phenomenon. The valves with three different valve angles have been developed to understand the effect of valve angle on EGR flow performance. The flow rate was measured experimentally for these three proposals. The simulation results when compared with the experimental results show a good agreement with variation of approximately 5%. The results show that higher the valve angle, higher the flow rate with lesser leakage through the system. Copyright © 2017 SAE International and Copyright © 2017 SAE INDIA.


Nagendiran S.R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sureshkumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sivanantham R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Pandarinath H.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Vacuum pump is a device which gets the drive from engine cam shaft. In some designs, it is driven by the alternator shaft. The main function of vacuum pump is to evacuate the air from the brake booster tank, thus creating vacuum, which can be used for brake application. In addition to this, in new generation engines, to meet the Euro V emission targets, vacuum pump also has to create vacuum in the auxiliary tank which will be used to actuate the turbo charger waste gate actuation mechanism and EGR valve. The vacuum pump used for brake application when modified to perform the additional function of turbocharger may deteriorate the primary application performance. The tapping position and the size of the vacuum port for the auxiliary tank will influence the primary braking performance of the pump. The work described in this paper involves the systematic analysis of layout study of vacuum pump to meet the performance of the vehicle for brake and turbocharger applications. Steady state bench test conditions were framed to simulate the actual vehicle condition of braking and turbocharger actuation as individual and simultaneous conditions. Design of experiments by Taguchi's method was adapted to arrive at the number of optimum trials for experimental verification. Proto samples were made and evaluated for the experiments designed. Final design included provision/opening position of additional boss for connection with turbocharger waste gate, optimization of secondary nipple diameter and location, for target performance. Based on the test results the design was finalized to the specific engine requirements. Finally the pump was fitted in the vehicle and validated for performance for brake application and turbo charger waste gate actuation for the entire engine operating conditions. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.


Lingeswaramurthy P.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd | Jayabhaskar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd | Elayaraja R.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd | Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2011

Increasing the efficiency of the Engine parts and reduction in development time with good accuracy are the challenges in the Automotive Industry. Lubricating oil pump has been selected for this study. Existing literatures explain the methodology to generate the rotor profile from the given geometrical parameters of the rotor like eccentricity, tooth radius etc. Invariably the specifications to design the pump are provided in terms of pump performance at various operating conditions. The analytical model developed in this study uses the performance and boundary specifications to generate the rotor profile and to estimate the flow rate at various operating conditions of the pump. This methodology includes the generation of trochoidal profile for inner rotor and modified conjugate profile for the outer rotor and the volume calculation of number of chambers (N) which are created between the rotors during meshing. The flow is estimated by solving a system of N+2 coupled differential equations using a unique solver code. Various designs are carried out by modifying the rotor parameters and the optimum design is selected based on the flow ripples, geometrical interference, minimum flow margin etc., Based on the analytical model, an oil pump prototype is made and validated experimentally. Correlation between the analytical and experimental results established with in 5%. This analytical model can be used to design the gerotor oil pump for any application in a very short time. © 2011 SAE International.


Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mallikarjuna J.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Govindarajan S.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In order to achieve good fuel spray characteristics, proper placing of the fuel injector in the intake manifold in port fuel injected (PFI) gasoline engines is very crucial. In automotive PFI engines, vehicle layout may be a constraint to mount the fuel injector in best possible location and inclination. In general, PFI engines use straight spray fuel injection. However, if there is a vehicle layout constraint, then inclined fuel spray may be suitable which is not very common. Hence, it is important to understand the effect of fuel spray inclination on fuel spray characteristics. In this study, a CFD analysis has been carried out for the four inclinations of fuel spray and the results are compared. The geometrical modeling of the fuel injector is done using ProE software. It is meshed with polyhedral cells and mesh refinement is done wherever required. Inlet air velocity and exit pressure of intake pipe at wide-open-throttle conditions are used as boundary conditions. In this study, droplet size distribution, sauter mean diameter (SMD), fuel penetration and evaporation rate are analyzed. Also available actual mass flow rate of the fuel injector with straight fuel spray are compared with numerical predictions. From the analysis of the results, it is found that straight fuel spray is preferable in terms of good fuel spray characteristics. However, if vehicle layout does not permit it, then 5° inclined spray may be used, without compromising much on fuel spray characteristics. © 2013 SAE International.


Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Suresh Kumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

This paper presents the details of the study to optimize and arrive at a design base for a vacuum pump in an automotive engine using resilient back propagation algorithm for Artificial Neural Networking (ANN). The reason for using neural networks is to capture the accuracy of experimental data while saving computational time, so that system simulations can be performed within a reasonable time frame. Vacuum Pump is an engine driven part. Design and optimization of a vacuum pump in an automotive engine is crucial for development. The NN predicted values had a good correlation with the actual values of tested proto sample. The design optimization by means of this study has served the purpose of generating the data base for future development of different capacity vacuum pumps. The ANN approach has been applied to automotive vacuum brake for predicting the optimized evacuation time and the power for a vacuum pump of 110 cc capacity with vacuum tank capacity of 3 cc at pressure of 500 mbar. The ANN predictions for the evacuation time and power of the tested vacuum brake yielded a good statistical performance with mean square error of 8.21152 e-3 and regression value between 0.9904 e-01. Comparisons of the ANN predictions and the experimental results demonstrate that to automotive vacuum brake can accurately be modeled using ANNs. Consequently, with the use of ANNs, the evacuation time and power of the brake can easily be determined by performing only a limited number of tests instead of a detailed experimental study, thus saving both time and cost. As a result the proposed NN model has strong potential as a feasible tool for the prediction of evacuation time of a vacuum pump used in automobile brakes. © 2013 SAE International.


Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mallikarjuna J.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Govindarajan S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In modern direct injection gasoline engines, air-fuel mixing has a strong influence on combustion and emission characteristics, which in turn largely depends on in-cylinder fluid motion. However, in-cylinder fluid motion dependent on many engine parameters viz., piston shape, engine speed, intake manifold orientation, compression ratio, fuel injection timing, duration, etc. Among them, piston shape has significant influence on the in-cylinder fluid motion. Therefore, this study aims on evaluating the effect of piston shape on in-cylinder flows in a direct injection engine using CFD. In this study, a single-cylinder, two-valve, four-stroke direct injection engine designed for two-wheeler application in India is considered for the analysis. 'STAR-CD' and és-ice' are used for CFD analysis. Pressure boundary values obtained from measurements in the actual engine are employed. Two piston-shapes viz., flat and bowl types at wide-open-throttle under non-firing conditions are considered. Mainly analysis has been done to obtain in-cylinder velocity vector fields and in-cylinder flows, which are characterized by tumble ratio and turbulent kinetic energy. In addition, motoring experiments were conducted on an actual engine to measure in-cylinder pressure variation in order to compare it with CFD results. From the analysis of results, it is found that bowl shaped piston generates higher TR and TKE than those of flat piston by about 15 and 12% respectively. © 2013 SAE International.


Sivanantham R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sureshkumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Emerging trend in the automotive industry all around the world is to develop vehicles to consume less fuel and to meet stringent emission norms by using engines of higher power to weight ratio and higher thermal efficiency. These advanced technology engines designed for high power output will use low viscous oil to reduce frictional losses and will operate at elevated temperature levels. Hence, the various auxiliaries and parts of these engines should be adaptable for the use of low viscous oil and should withstand higher temperatures. Oil pump is one such auxiliary which will be subjected to work with low viscous oil at higher temperatures levels. The oil pump taken for study and design improvement is an internal gear type positive displacement oil pump, used in a passenger car diesel engine. The un-meshing of the gears causes the inflow and meshing causes the outflow of lubricating oil. This process occurs continuously for providing a smooth pumping action. The oil pump designed for higher viscous oil will exhibit low performance when low viscous oil is used. The performance of these pumps will further go down at the elevated thermal levels of engine. The parameters selected to study this effect on oil pump performance are i) Clearances between the moving elements and the housing, ii) Passages for flow of oil inside the pump and from the pump to the engine. Each element was modified and the pump with the modifications- separately and in combinations-was tested for flow and pressure characteristics. From the experimental results, it was observed that the Oil flow rate improved around 15% for the given pressure specifications with the modification of the design parameters. In addition to the flow improvement the power consumption by the oil pump decreased by more than 15%. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.


Sureshkumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Vijayakumar K.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Elayaraja R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

The main challenge in today's modern engines is to design the parts, which should withstand higher temperatures. To achieve this, selection of materials and process tolerances are very important factors. The product identified in this study is a conventional oil pump, which is an engine auxiliary component. The function of the oil pump is to supply oil to different parts of the engine to lubricate and reduce the overall engine friction. The different speed and load conditions for which the engine is subjected, pose a challenge to the oil pump, to supply the necessary quantity of oil at the required pressure and temperature. Normally, the oil pump is subjected to a temperature of 120°C at higher speeds. However, the peak oil temperature in modern diesel engines can be as high as 140°C to 150°C for a short period of time. For this study, two engine grade oils were selected. Numerical analysis was performed to predict the oil flow rate for these oil grades. In addition to this, numerical analysis was performed for optimization of oil pump clearances. Numerical results were validated with experiments with an accuracy of approximately 5%. Proto samples were made with this optimized clearance and tested along with existing clearances under steady state conditions. Engine test was also carried out to measure the oil pressure. The results show that by lowering the oil viscosity (SAE 0W20), the oil flow rate and pressure were reduced. By reducing the clearances in the rotor, the oil flow rate was matched with higher viscosity oil (SAE 5W30). The oil pressure was also increased by approximately 10% as compared with higher viscosity oil, which is favourable in reducing the priming time at cold start conditions. The power consumed at maximum power point was reduced by approximately 5%. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

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