UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd

Chennai, India

UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd

Chennai, India

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Nagendiran S.R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sureshkumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sivanantham R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Pandarinath H.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2011

Vacuum pump is a device which gets the drive from engine cam shaft. In some designs, it is driven by the alternator shaft. The main function of vacuum pump is to evacuate the air from the brake booster tank, thus creating vacuum, which can be used for brake application. In addition to this, in new generation engines, to meet the Euro V emission targets, vacuum pump also has to create vacuum in the auxiliary tank which will be used to actuate the turbo charger waste gate actuation mechanism and EGR valve. The vacuum pump used for brake application when modified to perform the additional function of turbocharger may deteriorate the primary application performance. The tapping position and the size of the vacuum port for the auxiliary tank will influence the primary braking performance of the pump. The work described in this paper involves the systematic analysis of layout study of vacuum pump to meet the performance of the vehicle for brake and turbocharger applications. Steady state bench test conditions were framed to simulate the actual vehicle condition of braking and turbocharger actuation as individual and simultaneous conditions. Design of experiments by Taguchi's method was adapted to arrive at the number of optimum trials for experimental verification. Proto samples were made and evaluated for the experiments designed. Final design included provision/opening position of additional boss for connection with turbocharger waste gate, optimization of secondary nipple diameter and location, for target performance. Based on the test results the design was finalized to the specific engine requirements. Finally the pump was fitted in the vehicle and validated for performance for brake application and turbo charger waste gate actuation for the entire engine operating conditions. Copyright © 2011 SAE International.


Lingeswaramurthy P.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd | Jayabhaskar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd | Elayaraja R.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd | Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd
SAE International Journal of Engines | Year: 2011

Increasing the efficiency of the Engine parts and reduction in development time with good accuracy are the challenges in the Automotive Industry. Lubricating oil pump has been selected for this study. Existing literatures explain the methodology to generate the rotor profile from the given geometrical parameters of the rotor like eccentricity, tooth radius etc. Invariably the specifications to design the pump are provided in terms of pump performance at various operating conditions. The analytical model developed in this study uses the performance and boundary specifications to generate the rotor profile and to estimate the flow rate at various operating conditions of the pump. This methodology includes the generation of trochoidal profile for inner rotor and modified conjugate profile for the outer rotor and the volume calculation of number of chambers (N) which are created between the rotors during meshing. The flow is estimated by solving a system of N+2 coupled differential equations using a unique solver code. Various designs are carried out by modifying the rotor parameters and the optimum design is selected based on the flow ripples, geometrical interference, minimum flow margin etc., Based on the analytical model, an oil pump prototype is made and validated experimentally. Correlation between the analytical and experimental results established with in 5%. This analytical model can be used to design the gerotor oil pump for any application in a very short time. © 2011 SAE International.


Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mallikarjuna J.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Govindarajan S.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In order to achieve good fuel spray characteristics, proper placing of the fuel injector in the intake manifold in port fuel injected (PFI) gasoline engines is very crucial. In automotive PFI engines, vehicle layout may be a constraint to mount the fuel injector in best possible location and inclination. In general, PFI engines use straight spray fuel injection. However, if there is a vehicle layout constraint, then inclined fuel spray may be suitable which is not very common. Hence, it is important to understand the effect of fuel spray inclination on fuel spray characteristics. In this study, a CFD analysis has been carried out for the four inclinations of fuel spray and the results are compared. The geometrical modeling of the fuel injector is done using ProE software. It is meshed with polyhedral cells and mesh refinement is done wherever required. Inlet air velocity and exit pressure of intake pipe at wide-open-throttle conditions are used as boundary conditions. In this study, droplet size distribution, sauter mean diameter (SMD), fuel penetration and evaporation rate are analyzed. Also available actual mass flow rate of the fuel injector with straight fuel spray are compared with numerical predictions. From the analysis of the results, it is found that straight fuel spray is preferable in terms of good fuel spray characteristics. However, if vehicle layout does not permit it, then 5° inclined spray may be used, without compromising much on fuel spray characteristics. © 2013 SAE International.


Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Suresh Kumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

This paper presents the details of the study to optimize and arrive at a design base for a vacuum pump in an automotive engine using resilient back propagation algorithm for Artificial Neural Networking (ANN). The reason for using neural networks is to capture the accuracy of experimental data while saving computational time, so that system simulations can be performed within a reasonable time frame. Vacuum Pump is an engine driven part. Design and optimization of a vacuum pump in an automotive engine is crucial for development. The NN predicted values had a good correlation with the actual values of tested proto sample. The design optimization by means of this study has served the purpose of generating the data base for future development of different capacity vacuum pumps. The ANN approach has been applied to automotive vacuum brake for predicting the optimized evacuation time and the power for a vacuum pump of 110 cc capacity with vacuum tank capacity of 3 cc at pressure of 500 mbar. The ANN predictions for the evacuation time and power of the tested vacuum brake yielded a good statistical performance with mean square error of 8.21152 e-3 and regression value between 0.9904 e-01. Comparisons of the ANN predictions and the experimental results demonstrate that to automotive vacuum brake can accurately be modeled using ANNs. Consequently, with the use of ANNs, the evacuation time and power of the brake can easily be determined by performing only a limited number of tests instead of a detailed experimental study, thus saving both time and cost. As a result the proposed NN model has strong potential as a feasible tool for the prediction of evacuation time of a vacuum pump used in automobile brakes. © 2013 SAE International.


Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mallikarjuna J.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Govindarajan S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In modern direct injection gasoline engines, air-fuel mixing has a strong influence on combustion and emission characteristics, which in turn largely depends on in-cylinder fluid motion. However, in-cylinder fluid motion dependent on many engine parameters viz., piston shape, engine speed, intake manifold orientation, compression ratio, fuel injection timing, duration, etc. Among them, piston shape has significant influence on the in-cylinder fluid motion. Therefore, this study aims on evaluating the effect of piston shape on in-cylinder flows in a direct injection engine using CFD. In this study, a single-cylinder, two-valve, four-stroke direct injection engine designed for two-wheeler application in India is considered for the analysis. 'STAR-CD' and és-ice' are used for CFD analysis. Pressure boundary values obtained from measurements in the actual engine are employed. Two piston-shapes viz., flat and bowl types at wide-open-throttle under non-firing conditions are considered. Mainly analysis has been done to obtain in-cylinder velocity vector fields and in-cylinder flows, which are characterized by tumble ratio and turbulent kinetic energy. In addition, motoring experiments were conducted on an actual engine to measure in-cylinder pressure variation in order to compare it with CFD results. From the analysis of results, it is found that bowl shaped piston generates higher TR and TKE than those of flat piston by about 15 and 12% respectively. © 2013 SAE International.


Franklin F.B.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sivanantham R.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Kumar J.S.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2012

As India is becoming a hub for design and manufacture of various automotive parts for the global market, it becomes important to verify whether the design is safe at extreme thermal operating conditions, before the introduction of the product to market. For our current work, we have identified Vacuum Pumps, which are principally used in diesel applications for generating vacuum primarily for the servo brake application. With the emission norms getting modified, EGR and turbo charging are employed to meet them. The vacuum signal is used for EGR actuation, turbo charger waste gate actuation, etc. The multi functional application of vacuum pumps and the functional criticality in application like braking system demand an efficient and reliable performance. Finite element analysis (FEA) is one such tool, which can be used to verify the product/components for structural and thermal rigidity at different operating conditions. In our present work, we have carried out the analysis for predicting the stresses to check whether the values are within allowable limits at extreme operating conditions. We have also studied the clearance analysis of the product in order to check interferences between various components. The material properties of each component at extreme temperatures of vacuum pump were assigned to the corresponding finite element model. The material properties for ferrous and non-ferrous components were taken from the material library. For parts like rubber and plastic materials, which are non-linear in nature, samples were tested and results fed as input for analysis. Suitable algorithm was used to create connectivity between various parts based on the nature of each connection. The solver was chosen for the analysis by considering the type of analysis, the degrees of freedom and the hardware configuration. Non-linear analysis was carried out for estimating the stress and clearances, which depend on the behavior of material, geometry and presence of contact elements. Numerical analysis helped in visualizing the stress contours in the vacuum pump assembly and helped in predicting the high stress regions of the selected material and design. Design tolerances were verified for clearances between moving parts, in critical areas, due to variation in temperature. Finite Element Analysis results gave good insight on the design and material selection for use under extreme thermal limits. Copyright © 2011 2012 SAE International.


Sivanantham R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Sureshkumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2010

Emerging trend in the automotive industry all around the world is to develop vehicles to consume less fuel and to meet stringent emission norms by using engines of higher power to weight ratio and higher thermal efficiency. These advanced technology engines designed for high power output will use low viscous oil to reduce frictional losses and will operate at elevated temperature levels. Hence, the various auxiliaries and parts of these engines should be adaptable for the use of low viscous oil and should withstand higher temperatures. Oil pump is one such auxiliary which will be subjected to work with low viscous oil at higher temperatures levels. The oil pump taken for study and design improvement is an internal gear type positive displacement oil pump, used in a passenger car diesel engine. The un-meshing of the gears causes the inflow and meshing causes the outflow of lubricating oil. This process occurs continuously for providing a smooth pumping action. The oil pump designed for higher viscous oil will exhibit low performance when low viscous oil is used. The performance of these pumps will further go down at the elevated thermal levels of engine. The parameters selected to study this effect on oil pump performance are i) Clearances between the moving elements and the housing, ii) Passages for flow of oil inside the pump and from the pump to the engine. Each element was modified and the pump with the modifications- separately and in combinations-was tested for flow and pressure characteristics. From the experimental results, it was observed that the Oil flow rate improved around 15% for the given pressure specifications with the modification of the design parameters. In addition to the flow improvement the power consumption by the oil pump decreased by more than 15%. Copyright © 2010 SAE International.


Suresh Kumar J.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Ganesan V.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Mallikarjuna J.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Govindarajan S.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd
Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering | Year: 2013

Main function of a fuel injector used in internal combustion (IC) engines is to properly atomize liquid fuel for vaporizing and mixing with air. In order to achieve good vaporization and mixing, location of the fuel injector inside the combustion chamber is very critical especially in gasoline direct injection engines. In automotive engines, vehicle layout possesses main constraint to mount the fuel injector at a particular location and orientation. In the present study, a conventional carburetor fitted engine was operated with port fuel injection to meet the future emission standards for a two-wheeler application. In general, for gasoline port injection engines, straight cone angle fuel injectors are mainly employed. The direction of fuel spray (cone angle) should be targeted to minimize the wall wetting, which in turn affects the performance and emission characteristics of the engine. Therefore, it is important to study the fuel spray characteristics in these engines. In this study, a CFD analysis has been carried out on a fuel injector to understand the effect of cone angle (8 and 18) on fuel penetration, droplet size, and evaporation characteristics. In order to carry out CFD analysis, a fuel injector commonly used for Indian two-wheeler application is considered. The geometric model of the injector is generated using ProE software. The model is meshed with polyhedral cells and surface refinement is done at injector and intake pipe regions. The meshed model has a grid density of 0.2 million cells. Analysis has been carried out with inlet air velocity (at the outlet of throttle body) and pressure outlet boundary conditions (cylinder pressure at bottom dead center). Outer surfaces are considered as walls with no-slip boundary condition and intake temperature used was measured from an actual engine, which is used as the boundary conditions. In this study, wide-open throttle position is selected for detailed numerical analysis. Out of the two cone angles considered, 8 is found to be better in terms of lower sauter mean diameter (SMD), fuel evaporation and penetration. However, higher cone angle is found to be better, due to larger spread of fuel and higher probability of getting energy from incoming air so that the size of droplet can be smaller and mixing with the air will be faster, which will enhance the fuel evaporation. At wide-open throttle position, due to higher air velocities, air-fuel mixing is better due to higher evaporation rate with a lesser particle diameter. The CFD results have been compared with steady state measurements in a test bench and the predicted results found to match with experimental results reasonably well with a maximum deviation less than about 6 %. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Suresh Kumar J.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Srinivasan B.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Elayaraja R.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd. | Palani S.,Ucal Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2013

In India, for two-wheeler application, carburettor is the preferred fuel supply system for majority of the market, owing to its simplicity and low cost. With the regulations becoming stringent, carburettor internal structure requires modification. One of the important parameters is the venturi shape, which controls the air-fuel mixture supply to the engine. Venturi shape plays an important role in deciding the transient performance characteristics. In this study, a CFD analysis has been carried out to predict the pressure and velocity at the venture of the carburettor. Four different cross sections namely, circular, oval, trapezoidal and double D venturi shapes were selected. The geometric model of the carburettor was created and mesh refinements were carried out in critical regions. At part open throttle, CFD prediction of airflow rate with Trapezoidal venturi shape was found higher when compared to other venturi shapes. In actual vehicle trials, it was found that this venturi shape has a better acceleration time of 5% (0∼60 km) compared to circular shape. At wide open throttle, CFD predicted airflow rate with circular venturi shape was found better than other venturi shapes due to lesser restriction. In actual vehicle trials, this type of venturi cross section yielded 4% more power than the trapezoidal venturi carburetors. Finally it is concluded that oval shape is a good compromise for an optimum performance. © 2013 SAE International.


Sureshkumar J.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Vijayakumar K.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd. | Elayaraja R.,UCAL Fuel Systems Ltd.
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2016

The main challenge in today's modern engines is to design the parts, which should withstand higher temperatures. To achieve this, selection of materials and process tolerances are very important factors. The product identified in this study is a conventional oil pump, which is an engine auxiliary component. The function of the oil pump is to supply oil to different parts of the engine to lubricate and reduce the overall engine friction. The different speed and load conditions for which the engine is subjected, pose a challenge to the oil pump, to supply the necessary quantity of oil at the required pressure and temperature. Normally, the oil pump is subjected to a temperature of 120°C at higher speeds. However, the peak oil temperature in modern diesel engines can be as high as 140°C to 150°C for a short period of time. For this study, two engine grade oils were selected. Numerical analysis was performed to predict the oil flow rate for these oil grades. In addition to this, numerical analysis was performed for optimization of oil pump clearances. Numerical results were validated with experiments with an accuracy of approximately 5%. Proto samples were made with this optimized clearance and tested along with existing clearances under steady state conditions. Engine test was also carried out to measure the oil pressure. The results show that by lowering the oil viscosity (SAE 0W20), the oil flow rate and pressure were reduced. By reducing the clearances in the rotor, the oil flow rate was matched with higher viscosity oil (SAE 5W30). The oil pressure was also increased by approximately 10% as compared with higher viscosity oil, which is favourable in reducing the priming time at cold start conditions. The power consumed at maximum power point was reduced by approximately 5%. Copyright © 2016 SAE International.

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