Marin County, United States
Marin County, United States

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Sokolow A.D.,University of California at Davis | Hammond S.V.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Norton M.,UCCE | Schmidt E.E.,University of California at Davis
California Agriculture | Year: 2010

About 2.5 million agricultural acres are located adjacent or in close proximity to nonfarm residences in California, leading to widespread farm-residential conflicts. This exploratory study compared high- and low-conflict edges in four crop-growing communities in two counties. (A separate analysis of San Diego County in a sidebar compares two edge situations involving animal and nursery operations.) We present tentative generalizations about conflict variations, sources and solutions. High confliict levels were largely due to residents' unfamiliarity with agricultural activities, although conflict levels were also related to specific farming practices. We also pose questions to guide further and more systematic research on the edge issue in California agriculture.


Rilla E.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Hardesty S.D.,University of California at Davis | Getz C.,University of California at Berkeley | George H.,UCCE
California Agriculture | Year: 2011

More than 2.4 million visitors participated in agritourism at California farms and ranches in 2008. They stayed at guest ranches in the foothills, picked peaches in the Sacramento Valley, played in corn mazes up and down the state, shopped at on-farm produce stands along the coast, held weddings in fields and vineyards from coast to mountains, and experienced myriad other agriculture-related tourism activities. The UC Small Farm Program conducted the first statewide economic survey of California agritourism operators to better understand their goals, needs and economic outlook. University researchers from several other states provided input and sample data from state surveys conducted between 2000 and 2007. This information will help to target outreach and address current and emerging challenges.


Stewart W.L.,University of California at Davis | Fulton A.E.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Krueger W.H.,UCCE | Lampinen B.D.,University of California at Davis | Shackel K.A.,University of California at Davis
California Agriculture | Year: 2011

A plant-based regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) experiment in the northern Sacramento Valley determined that crop consumptive water use and irrigation could be reduced without significant detrimental effects on almond production. Tree stress was measured by recording midday stem water potential, a direct measure of tree water stress. With a water stress level of -14 to -18 bars during the hull-split period, average annual water savings were about 5 inches. Over 5 years, no significant yield reductions were observed, although average kernel weight was slightly lower. The results suggest that water savings can be achieved without affecting yield, even in soils with low water-holding capacity.


Mangiafico S.S.,Rutgers University | Newman J.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Mochizuki M.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Zurawski D.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | And 2 more authors.
California Agriculture | Year: 2010

A variety of good management practices have been recommended to minimize the impact of water runoff from production nurseries. However, studies have not been conducted to gauge which management practices nursery producers are most likely to adopt in response to education and increased government oversight. We surveyed 85 production nurseries in Southern California about their existing practices to limit the impacts of runoff from their facilities. Of these, 65 in Ventura County were resur-veyed with the same questionnaire within 2 years. The positive response rate for following good management practices was 65%, compared to 57% in the initial survey. There were significant increases in every category of practices surveyed, and significant changes in the adoption of 38 specific practices. This suggests that nurseries are amenable to adopting management practices within a short time span in areas where there is increased governmental oversight and educational opportunities for growers.


Burrack H.J.,North Carolina State University | Bingham R.,Plant Industry California | Connell J.H.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Wunderlich L.,UCCE Amador | And 4 more authors.
California Agriculture | Year: 2011

The olive fruit fly was first detected in Los Angeles in 1998 and in all the olive-growing regions of California soon after. Following its initial detection, UC researchers and Cooperative Extension farm advisors, county agricultural commissioners and the California Department of Food and Agriculture Pest Detection and Emergency Project established a statewide monitoring program to determine the extent of the olive fruit fly's occurrence, track its seasonal biology and evaluate monitoring tools. Fly populations and infestations can reach high levels throughout California but tend to be lower in the San Joaquin Valley. Trap captures typically exhibit a bimodal distribution with peaks in the spring and fall. Olive infestation is related to fly densities, climate and fruit size. Gravid, mated females vary in density throughout the year but are present at some level year-round. The data is being used to develop models that will better predict when the adults are active and olives are at risk.


Krasnow M.N.,University of California at Davis | Matthews M.A.,University of California at Davis | Smith R.J.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Benz J.,University of California at Davis | Shackel K.A.,University of California at Davis
California Agriculture | Year: 2010

Shriveled fruit in vineyards has several origins including sunburn, dehydration, bunchstem necrosis and the recently described sugar accumulation disorder. These disorders are often confused with one another, but they can easily be distinguished by the location or composition of shriveled fruit and the condition of the rachis (the stem structure of a cluster). Sunburn is typically exhibited only on berries that are exposed to direct sunlight, and bunchstem necrosis is typifi ed by necrotic rachis tissue. Berries with sugar accumulation disorder exhibit low sugar concentration, whereas berries with late-season dehydration typically have above-normal sugar concentration. Berries with sugar accumulation disorder and bunchstem necrosis exhibit the sugar content when sugar accumulation ceases or stem necrosis occurs, respectively. In tests, berries with sugar accumulation disorder exhibited lower berry weight, pH and anthocyanins, as well as differences in many nitrogenous compounds compared to normally developing fruit. In one location, sugar accumulation disorder was expressed at the whole-vine level, but none of the commonly known pathogenic organisms were found.


Long R.F.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Hanson B.R.,University of California at Davis | Fulton A.E.,UCCE | Weston D.P.,University of California at Berkeley
California Agriculture | Year: 2010

Irrigation tailwater can transport sediments and sediment-associated agricultural pollutants to nearby waterways. To help protect the biota of surface waters, we evaluated the use of polyacrylamide (PAM, a synthetic material that flocculates sediments when added to water), vegetated ditches and sediment traps to mitigate sediment losses from furrow-irrigated fields. In a 2-year study, liquid PAM injected into irrigation source water most effectively reduced suspended-sediment concentrations in runoff from different soil types. Dry tablet and granule PAM formulations were also effective, as long as their placement in the furrows promoted their dissolution in irrigation water. Vegetated ditches resulted in intermediate reductions in suspended sediments in tailwater. The sediment traps were limited in their effectiveness by insufficient holding time for fine-grained particulates to settle out of the runoff.


Standiford R.B.,University of California at Berkeley | McCreary D.,University of California at Berkeley | Barry S.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Forero L.,UCCE
California Agriculture | Year: 2011

California's hardwood rangelands, an oak-dominated woodland system, cover 10 million acres. More than 80% of these lands are privately owned, with two-thirds grazed by domestic livestock. Public concerns about long-term damage to habitat in areas harvested for firewood - particularly in the northern Sacramento Valley - led to this study of resprouting, to assess long-term trends in oak cover following harvesting and the potential of sprout (coppice) management to sustain woodlands. In field surveys on 103 sample plots at 19 ranches where oak firewood was harvested, we found that 54% of all oak stumps resprouted. Stump diameter, herbicide application, overstory crown cover percentage, and slope and aspect were significant variables in models developed to assess the probability of stump sprouting. Ten-year sprout height and crown growth models were developed, and livestock grazing, residual overstory canopy, herbicide treatment and stump diameter were found to be significant variables. These models can be used to predict stand development following firewood harvest and can be integrated with forage growth, wildlife habitat and residual tree growth models.


Blackburn M.L.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE
California Agriculture | Year: 2010

The silver century is now! Seniors 65 and older are the fastest growing segment of the world's population, and in the United States the 85 and over age group is increasing at the highest rate. This study documents the chronic diseases reported by a diverse group (n = 377) of urban, limited-income seniors who attended UC Cooperative Extension Quality of Life education forums. The data suggests that their greatest educational need is learning how to integrate multiple concepts and complex research and technology into their personal lives. The data correlated disease conditions, diet and physical activity with age and ethnicity to show the magnitude of multiple diseases among them, identify perceived educational needs, and describe seniors' expectations and preferred education and training delivery methods.


Barrett G.J.,UC Cooperative Extension UCCE | Blackburn M.L.,UCCE
California Agriculture | Year: 2010

As the first baby boomers reach age 65 in 2011, California will face unprecedented growth in its aging population. At the same time, budget cuts threaten California's In-home Supportive Services (IHSS), which now assists seniors aging at home and the disabled. We conducted a cost analysis and compared caseload changes using IHSS raw data from 2005 and 2009. Results showed an across-the-board increase in caseload and cost for indigent in-home care in California, with significant variation from county to county. Large numbers of minimally trained IHSS caregivers, and family caregivers with little or no training, raise concerns about the quality of care that elders and the disabled receive, while highlighting the need to protect the health and well-being of caregivers themselves. UC Cooperative Extension can play a vital role in training undertrained and unskilled caregivers through applied research, curriculum design, education and evaluation, and proposing public policy options to help raise the competencies of caregivers.

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